VERSES
78
PAGES
332-341

Name

This Surah takes its name from v. 27.

Period of Revelation

As this Surah contains the characteristics of both the Makki and the Madani Surahs, the commentators have differed as to its period of revelation, but in the light of its style and themes we are of the opinion that a part of it (vv. 1-24) was sent down in the last stage of the Makki life of the Holy Prophet a little before migration and the rest (vv. 25-78) during the first stage of his Madani life. That is why this Surah combines the characteristics of both the Makki and the Madani Surahs.

The sudden change of the style from v. 25 shows that probably vv. 25-78 were sent down in the month of Zul-Hijjah in the very first year after Hijrah. This is indicated by vv. 25-41 and confirmed by the occasion of the revelation of vv. 39-40. It appears that the month of Zul-Hijjah must have brought to the immigrants nostalgic memories of their homes in Makkah and naturally they must have thought of their Sacred City and of their Hajj congregation there, and grieved to think that the mushrik Quraish had debarred them from visiting the Sacred Mosque. Therefore, they might even have been praying for and expecting Divine permission to wage war against those tyrants who had expelled them from their homes and deprived them of visiting the House of Allah and made it difficult for them to follow the way of Islam. It was at this psychological occasion that these verses were sent down. That is why the purpose for which Masjid-al- Haram was built has been specifically mentioned. It has been made plain that Hajj(pilgrimage) had been enjoined for the worship of One Allah. But it is an irony that afterwards it had been dedicated to the rituals of shirk and the worshipers of One Allah had been debarred from visiting it. Therefore, permission for waging war against those tyrants has been given to oust them from there and to establish the righteous way of life for establishing virtue and eradicating evil. According to Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Urwah bin Zubair, Zaid bin Aslam, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Qatadah and other great commentators, v. 39 is the first verse that grants the Muslims permission to wage war. Collections of Hadith and books on the life of the Holy Prophet confirm that after this permission actual preparations for war were started and the first expedition was sent to the coast of the Red Sea in Safar A.H. 2, which is known as the Expedition of Waddan or Al- Abwa.

Subject Matter and Theme

This Surah is addressed to: (1) The mushriks of Makkah, (2) the wavering Muslims, and (3) the True Believers. The mushriks have been warned in a forceful manner to this effect: "You have obdurately and impudently persisted in your ideas of ignorance and trusted in your deities instead of Allah, though they possess no power at all and you have repudiated the Divine Messenger. Now you will meet the same end as has been the doom of those like you before. You have only harmed yourselves by rejecting Our Prophet and by persecuting the best element of your own community; now your false deities shall not be able to save you from the wrath of God". At the same time, they have been admonished time and again for their creed of shirk and sound arguments have been given in favor of Tauhid and the Hereafter.

The wavering Muslims, who had embraced Islam but were not prepared to endure any hardship in its way, have been admonished to this effect: "What is this faith of yours? On the one hand, you are ready to believe in Allah and become His servants provided you are given peace and prosperity but, on the other, if you meet with afflictions and hardships in His Way, you discard your Allah and cease to remain His servant. You should bear in mind that this wavering attitude of yours cannot avert those misfortunes and losses which Allah has ordained for you."

As regards the true Believers, they have been addressed in two ways: (1) in a general way so as to include the common people of Arabia also, and (2) in an exclusive way:

  1. The Believers have been told that the mushriks of Makkah had no right to debar them from visiting the Holy Mosque. They had no right to prevent anyone from performing Hajj because the Holy Mosque was not their private property. This objection was not only justified but it also acted as an effective political weapon against the Quraish. For it posed this question to the other clans of Arabia: Were the Quraish mere attendants of the Holy Mosque or its owners? It implied that if they succeeded in debarring the Muslims from Hajj without any protest from others, they would feel encouraged in future to debar from Hajj and Umrah the people of any other clan, who happened to have strained relations with the Quraish. In order to emphasize this point, the history of the construction of the Holy Mosque has been cited to show that it was built by Prophet Abraham by the Command of Allah and he had invited all the peoples to perform Hajj there. That is why those coming from outside had enjoyed equal rights by the local people from the very beginning. It has also been made clear that that House had not been built for the rituals of shirk but for the worship of One Allah. Thus it was sheer tyranny that the worship of Allah was being forbidden there while the worship of idols enjoyed full license.

  2. In order to counteract the tyranny of the Quraish, the Muslims were allowed to fight with them. They were also given instructions to adopt the right and just attitude as and when they acquired power to rule in the land. Moreover, the Believers have been officially given the name of "Muslims", saying, "You are the real heirs to Abraham and you have been chosen to become witnesses of the Truth before mankind. Therefore you should establish salat and pay the zakat dues in order to become the best models of righteous life and perform Jihad for propagating the Word of Allah." (vv. 41,77, 78.)

It will be worth while to keep in view the introductions to Chapters II (Al-Baqarah) and VIII (Al Anfal).

Source: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Quran

ﭑﭒﭓ

22:67

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Sahih International

For every religion We have appointed rites which they perform. So, [O Muhammad], let the disbelievers not contend with you over the matter but invite them to your Lord. Indeed, you are upon straight guidance.

Farsi

برای هر امتی (روش عبادت و) آیینی مقرر کردیم که آنان به آن عمل کنند، پس نباید در این امر با تو به نزاع بر خیزند، به سوی پروردگارت دعوت کن، بی گمان تو بر هدایت مستقیم قرار داری.

22:68

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Sahih International

And if they dispute with you, then say, " Allah is most knowing of what you do.

Farsi

و اگر با تو مجادله کردند، پس بگو : «خداوند به آنچه انجام می دهید؛ داناتر است،

22:69

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Sahih International

Allah will judge between you on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which you used to differ."

Farsi

خداوند روز قیامت میان شما در آنچه در آن اختلاف می کردید، داوری می کند».

22:70

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Sahih International

Do you not know that Allah knows what is in the heaven and earth? Indeed, that is in a Record. Indeed that, for Allah , is easy.

Farsi

آیا ندانسته ای که خداوند آنچه را در آسمان و زمین است می داند ؟! بی گمان (همه ی) اینها در کتابی (ثبت) است، مسلماً این برخداوند آسان است .

22:71

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Farsi

و (آنها) به جای خداوند چیزی را می پرستند که (او) هیچ دلیلی بر آن نازل نکرده است، و چیزی را که علم به آن ندارند، و برای ستمگران هیچ یاوری نیست.

Sahih International

And they worship besides Allah that for which He has not sent down authority and that of which they have no knowledge. And there will not be for the wrongdoers any helper.

22:72

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Sahih International

And when Our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, you recognize in the faces of those who disbelieve disapproval. They are almost on the verge of assaulting those who recite to them Our verses. Say, "Then shall I inform you of [what is] worse than that? [It is] the Fire which Allah has promised those who disbelieve, and wretched is the destination."

Farsi

و هنگامی که آیات روشن ما بر آنان خوانده می شود، در چهره ی کسانی که کافر شدند (آثار) ناخوشی (و انکار) را می شناسی که نزدیک است بر کسانی که آیات ما را بر آنان می خواند، حمله ور شوند، بگو: «آیا شما را به بدتر از این خبر دهم ؟ (همان) آتش (جهنم) است که خداوند به کسانی که کافر شدند؛ وعده داده است، و بد سرانجامی است».

22:73

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Farsi

ای مردم! مثلی زده شده است، پس به آن گوش فرا دهید : بی گمان کسانی را که به جای الله (به خدایی) می خوانید؛ هر گز نمی توانند مگسی را بیافرینند، اگر چه (همگی) برای این (کار) گرد آیند، و اگر مگس چیزی از آنها برباید، نمی توانند از آن باز پس گیرند، (آری) طالب و مطلوب (= عابد ومعبود) نا توانند.

Sahih International

O people, an example is presented, so listen to it. Indeed, those you invoke besides Allah will never create [as much as] a fly, even if they gathered together for that purpose. And if the fly should steal away from them a [tiny] thing, they could not recover it from him. Weak are the pursuer and pursued.

22:74

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Sahih International

They have not appraised Allah with true appraisal. Indeed, Allah is Powerful and Exalted in Might.

Farsi

(آنها) خداوند را چنانکه سزاوار اوست نشناختند، یقیناً خداوند قوی پیروزمند است .

22:75

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Sahih International

Allah chooses from the angels messengers and from the people. Indeed, Allah is Hearing and Seeing.

Farsi

خداوند از فرشتگان رسولانی را بر می گزیند، و (نیز) از مردم، بی گمان خداوند شنوای بیناست .

22:76

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Sahih International

He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them. And to Allah will be returned [all] matters.

Farsi

آنچه را در پیش روی آنها، و آنچه پشت سر آنهاست می داند، و (همه ی) کارها به سوی خدا باز گردانده می شود.

22:77

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Farsi

ای کسانی که ایمان آوره اید ! رکوع کنید، و سجده کنید، و پروردگارتان را بپرستید، و کار نیک انجام دهید باشد که رستگار شوید.

Sahih International

O you who have believed, bow and prostrate and worship your Lord and do good - that you may succeed.

22:78

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Farsi

و در راه خدا جهاد کنید، چنانکه سزاوار جهاد (در راه) او است، او شما را بر گزید، و در دین برای شما هیچ سختی (و تنگنایی) قرار نداد، (همان) آیین پدرتان ابراهیم است، او (= خداوند) پیش از این (در کتب سابقه) و در این (قرآن نیز) شما را مسلمان نامید، تا پیامبر گواه بر شما باشد و شما گواهان بر مردم باشید، پس نماز را بر پا دارید، و زکات را بدهید، و به خدا تمسک جویید، که او مولای شماست، چه خوب مولا، وچه خوب یاوری است .

Sahih International

And strive for Allah with the striving due to Him. He has chosen you and has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty. [It is] the religion of your father, Abraham. Allah named you "Muslims" before [in former scriptures] and in this [revelation] that the Messenger may be a witness over you and you may be witnesses over the people. So establish prayer and give zakah and hold fast to Allah . He is your protector; and excellent is the protector, and excellent is the helper.