VERSES
59
PAGES
496-498

Name

The Surah takes its name from the word dukhan which occurs in verse 10.

Period of Revelation

Its period of revelation also could not be determined from any authentic tradition, but the internal evidence of the subject matter shows that this Surah too was sent down in the same period in which Surah Zukhruf and a few other earlier Surahs had been revealed. However, this Surah was sent down somewhat later. Its historical background is this: When the disbelievers of Makkah became more and more antagonistic in their attitude and conduct, the Holy Prophet prayed: O God, help me with a famine like the famine of Joseph. He thought that when the people would be afflicted with a calamity, they would remember God, their hearts would soften and they would accept the admonition. Allah granted his prayer, and the whole land was overtaken by such a terrible famine that the people were sorely distressed. At last, some of the Quraish chiefs among whom Hadrat Abdullah bin Masud has particularly mentioned the name of Abu Sufyan came to the Holy Prophet and requested him to pray to Allah to deliver his people from the calamity. On this occasion Allah sent down this Surah.

Subject Matter and Topics

The introduction to the address revealed on this occasion for the admonition and warning of the people of Makkah contained some important points, which are as follows:

  1. "You, O People of Makkah, are wrong in thinking that the Quran is being composed by Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace). This Book by itself bears the clear testimony that it is not the composition of a man but of Allah, Lord of the worlds."

  2. "You are making a wrong estimate of the worth of this Book. You think it is a calamity that has descended on you, whereas the Hour when Allah, out of sheer mercy, decided to send His Messenger and His Book to you was highly blessed."

  3. "You are foolishly involved in the misunderstanding that you will fight this Messenger and this Book and will win, whereas the fact is that the Messenger has been raised and the Book sent down in that particular Hour when Allah decides the destinies, and Allah's decisions are not so weak that they may be changed to a person's liking, nor are they based on ignorance and folly that there may be the likelihood of a mistake or error or weakness in them. They are rather the firm and unalterable decisions of the Ruler of the Universe, Who is All Hearing, All Knowing and All Wise. Therefore, they cannot be treated lightly.

  4. "You yourselves acknowledge that Allah alone is the Master and Lord of the earth and heavens and of everything in the Universe and also admit that life and death are only in His power, yet you insist on making others your deities, for which the only argument you offer is that that had been the practice since the time of your forefathers, whereas if a person has the conviction that Allah alone is the Master, Sustainer and Giver of life and death, he can never entertain the doubt that there can be other gods also beside Him, who can be worthy of worship. If your forefathers had committed this folly, there is no reason why you also should continue committing it blindly. As a matter of fact, their Lord too was only One God, Who is your Lord, and they also should have worshiped only Him, Whom you should worship."

  5. "The only demand of Allah's Providence and Mercifulness is not this that He should feed you, but also this that He should arrange guidance for you. For this very guidance He has sent His Messenger and His Book."

After this introduction, the question of the famine that was raging in Makkah has been discussed. As already mentioned, this famine had occurred on the Holy Prophet's prayer, and he had prayed for it so that when the calamity befell it would break the stubbornness of the disbelievers and then they would listen to the rebuke. It looked as if this expectation was being fulfilled to some extent, for some of the most stubborn enemies of the Truth, on account of the severities of the famine, had cried out: "O Lord, avert this torment from us and we will believe." At this, on the one hand, the Holy Prophet has been foretold :"These people will not learn any lesson from such calamities. When they have turned away from the Messenger, whose life, character, works and speech clearly show that he is Allah's true Messenger, how will a mere famine help remove their disbelief?" On the other, the unbelievers have been addressed, so as to say : "You lie when you say that you will believe as soon as the torment is removed from you. We shall just remove it to see how sincere you are in your promise. There is a graver disaster about to fall upon you. You need a much more crushing blow :minor misfortunes cannot set you right."

In this very connection, a reference has been made a little below to Pharaoh and his people, implying that those people also had met with precisely the same trial as the chiefs of the disbelieving Quraish are now afflicted. To them also a similar noble and honorable Messenger had come; they also had seen those express pointers and signs which clearly showed that he had been appointed by Allah; they also had gone on witnessing one sign after the other but they did not give up their stubbornness, till at last they made up their mind to put an end to the Messenger's life, and they met their doom, which has since become an object lesson for the people for ever.

After this the theme of the Hereafter has been taken up, which the disbelievers of Makkah vehemently denied. They said: "We have never seen anyone rising back to life after death. Raise our forefathers back to life if you are true in your claim about the life hereafter." In response to this, two arguments for the Hereafter have been presented briefly (1) That the denial of this creed has always proved destructive for the morals; and (2) that the universe is not a plaything of a thoughtless deity, but it is a wise system and no work of wisdom is ever vain or useless. Then the disbelievers demand to bring their forefathers back to life has been answered, thus : "This cannot be done every day to meet the demand of the individuals, but Allah has appointed a time when He will resurrect all mankind simultaneously and will subject them to accountability in His Court. If one has to protect oneself there, one should think about it here. For no one will be able to save himself there by his own power, nor by the power of any one else."

In connection with this Court of Allah, mention has been made of the fate of those who will be declared as culprits and of the rewards of those who will be declared as successful. The discourse has been concluded with this warning: "This Quran has been revealed in simple language in your own tongue so that you may understand it; yet if you do not understand it and insist on seeing your evil end, you may wait; Our Prophet too is waiting. Whatever is to happen, will happen at its own appointed time."

Source: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Quran

ﭑﭒﭓ

وَنَعْمَةٍ كَانُوا فِيهَا فَاكِهِينَ

Chinese

以及他們所享受的福澤!

Sahih International

And comfort wherein they were amused.

Japanese

またかれらがそこで享楽していた良い物を(残したか。)

كَذَٰلِكَ ۖ وَأَوْرَثْنَاهَا قَوْمًا آخَرِينَ

Chinese

結局是這樣的:我曾使別的民眾繼承他們,

Sahih International

Thus. And We caused to inherit it another people.

Japanese

(かれらの最後は)こうであった。そしてわれは,外の民に(それらを)継がせた。

فَمَا بَكَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّمَاءُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَا كَانُوا مُنظَرِينَ

Chinese

天地沒有哭他們,他們也沒有獲得緩刑。

Japanese

かれらのために,天も地も泣かず,かれらに猶予も与えられなかった。

Sahih International

And the heaven and earth wept not for them, nor were they reprieved.

وَلَقَدْ نَجَّيْنَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ الْمُهِينِ

Sahih International

And We certainly saved the Children of Israel from the humiliating torment -

Chinese

我確已使以色列的後裔擺脫了凌辱的刑罰——

Japanese

われは,イスラエルの子孫を屈辱の懲罰から救い,

مِن فِرْعَوْنَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَالِيًا مِّنَ الْمُسْرِفِينَ

Japanese

フィルアウンから(救い出した)。本当にかれは,高慢で無法者であった。

Sahih International

From Pharaoh. Indeed, he was a haughty one among the transgressors.

Chinese

法老的刑罰。他確是高傲的,確是過份的。

وَلَقَدِ اخْتَرْنَاهُمْ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

Chinese

我確已本真知而選拔他們,使他們超越各民族,

Sahih International

And We certainly chose them by knowledge over [all] the worlds.

Japanese

われは思うところにより,かれらを諸民族の上に選んだ。

وَآتَيْنَاهُم مِّنَ الْآيَاتِ مَا فِيهِ بَلَاءٌ مُّبِينٌ

Chinese

我賞賜他們許多蹟象,都是有明顯的試驗的。

Sahih International

And We gave them of signs that in which there was a clear trial.

Japanese

そして明白な試練を含む,数々の印を与えた。

إِنَّ هَٰؤُلَاءِ لَيَقُولُونَ

Japanese

さてこれら(マッカの偶像信者)は(愚かにも)言う。

Sahih International

Indeed, these [disbelievers] are saying,

Chinese

這等人必定要說:

إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا مَوْتَتُنَا الْأُولَىٰ وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمُنشَرِينَ

Japanese

「わたしたちは最初死ねば(2度と)起こされない。

Sahih International

"There is not but our first death, and we will not be resurrected.

Chinese

「我們只有初次的死亡,我們不會復活。

فَأْتُوا بِآبَائِنَا إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Chinese

你們把我們的祖先召喚回來吧,如果你們是說實話的。」

Japanese

もしあなたがた(の言葉)が真実なら,わたしたちの祖先を連れ戻してみなさい。」

Sahih International

Then bring [back] our forefathers, if you should be truthful."

أَهُمْ خَيْرٌ أَمْ قَوْمُ تُبَّعٍ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ أَهْلَكْنَاهُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا مُجْرِمِينَ

Sahih International

Are they better or the people of Tubba' and those before them? We destroyed them, [for] indeed, they were criminals.

Chinese

他們是更高貴的呢?還是圖白的宗族是更高貴呢?在他們之前的許多民族,我已加以毀滅了;因為他們確是犯罪者。

Japanese

かれら(マッカの偶像信者)はトッバウの民か,またそれ以前の者たちより優れているのか。われはかれら(諸民族)を滅ぼしたのである。本当にかれらは罪を犯した者であった。

ﯿ

وَمَا خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا لَاعِبِينَ

Sahih International

And We did not create the heavens and earth and that between them in play.

Chinese

我沒有以游戲的態度創造天地萬物,

Japanese

われは天と地,そしてその間にある凡てのものを,戯れに創ったのではない。

مَا خَلَقْنَاهُمَا إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Chinese

我只本真理而創造之,但他們大半不知道。

Sahih International

We did not create them except in truth, but most of them do not know.

Japanese

われは,天地とその間の凡てのものを,只真理のために創った。だが,かれらの多くは理解しない。

إِنَّ يَوْمَ الْفَصْلِ مِيقَاتُهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

Chinese

甄別日,確是為他們全體預定的日期。

Sahih International

Indeed, the Day of Judgement is the appointed time for them all -

Japanese

本当に(善悪の)選別の日は,凡てのものに定められた日である。

يَوْمَ لَا يُغْنِي مَوْلًى عَن مَّوْلًى شَيْئًا وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

Sahih International

The Day when no relation will avail a relation at all, nor will they be helped -

Chinese

在那日,朋友對於朋友,毫無裨益,他們也不蒙援助;

Japanese

その日,友はその友のために何も役立てず,またかれらは援助も得られない。

إِلَّا مَن رَّحِمَ اللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ

Japanese

だがアッラーの御慈悲を被むった者たちは別である。本当にかれは偉力ならびなく慈悲深くあられる。

Sahih International

Except those [believers] on whom Allah has mercy. Indeed, He is the Exalted in Might, the Merciful.

Chinese

惟真主所憐恤者則不然。他確是萬能的,確是至慈的。

إِنَّ شَجَرَتَ الزَّقُّومِ

Chinese

欑楛木的果實,

Sahih International

Indeed, the tree of zaqqum

Japanese

本当にアッ・ザックームの木こそは,

طَعَامُ الْأَثِيمِ

Japanese

罪ある者の糧である。

Chinese

確是罪人的食品,

Sahih International

Is food for the sinful.

كَالْمُهْلِ يَغْلِي فِي الْبُطُونِ

Chinese

像油腳樣在他們的腹中沸騰,

Sahih International

Like murky oil, it boils within bellies

Japanese

それは溶けた銅のように内臓の中で沸騰しよう,

كَغَلْيِ الْحَمِيمِ

Japanese

熱湯が滾りかえるように。

Chinese

像開水一樣地沸騰。

Sahih International

Like the boiling of scalding water.

ﭿ

خُذُوهُ فَاعْتِلُوهُ إِلَىٰ سَوَاءِ الْجَحِيمِ

Sahih International

[It will be commanded], "Seize him and drag him into the midst of the Hellfire,

Japanese

(声がして言われよう。)「かれを捕えよ,燃えさかる炎の只中に,引きずり込め。

Chinese

(主說)「你們捉住他,然後,把他拖入火獄中,

ثُمَّ صُبُّوا فَوْقَ رَأْسِهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْحَمِيمِ

Chinese

然後,再把沸水的刑罰傾注在他的頭上!」

Japanese

それから,かれの頭の上に沸騰する湯の痛苦を浴びせよ。

Sahih International

Then pour over his head from the torment of scalding water."

ذُقْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْكَرِيمُ

Sahih International

[It will be said], "Taste! Indeed, you are the honored, the noble!

Japanese

あなたは(これを)味わうがいい。本当にあなたは,力のある尊貴な者であった。

Chinese

「你嘗試吧!你確是顯赫的,確是尊貴的!

إِنَّ هَٰذَا مَا كُنتُم بِهِ تَمْتَرُونَ

Japanese

これこそあなたがたが,疑っていたものである。」

Sahih International

Indeed, this is what you used to dispute."

Chinese

這(刑罰)確是你們生前所懷疑的。」

إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي مَقَامٍ أَمِينٍ

Sahih International

Indeed, the righteous will be in a secure place;

Japanese

本当に,主を畏れた者は,安泰な所にいる。

Chinese

敬畏者必定要住在安全的地方——

فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَعُيُونٍ

Chinese

住在樂園之中,住在泉源之濱,

Japanese

園と泉の間に,

Sahih International

Within gardens and springs,

يَلْبَسُونَ مِن سُندُسٍ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٍ مُّتَقَابِلِينَ

Japanese

絹や錦を纒い,互いに向かい合って,

Sahih International

Wearing [garments of] fine silk and brocade, facing each other.

Chinese

穿著綾羅綢緞,相向而坐。

كَذَٰلِكَ وَزَوَّجْنَاهُم بِحُورٍ عِينٍ

Chinese

結局是這樣的:我將以白皙的、美目的女子,做他們的伴侶。

Japanese

このようにわれは,輝いた大きい目の乙女たちをかれらの配偶者にするであろう。

Sahih International

Thus. And We will marry them to fair women with large, [beautiful] eyes.

يَدْعُونَ فِيهَا بِكُلِّ فَاكِهَةٍ آمِنِينَ

Sahih International

They will call therein for every [kind of] fruit - safe and secure.

Japanese

かれらはそこで平安に,凡ての果実を求められ,

Chinese

他們在樂園中,將安全地索取各種水果。

لَا يَذُوقُونَ فِيهَا الْمَوْتَ إِلَّا الْمَوْتَةَ الْأُولَىٰ ۖ وَوَقَاهُمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ

Sahih International

They will not taste death therein except the first death, and He will have protected them from the punishment of Hellfire

Japanese

最初の死の外に,そこで(再び)死を味わうことはなく,燃える炎の責め苦から守護されよう。

Chinese

他們在樂園中,除初次的死亡外不再嘗死的滋味。真主將使他們得免於火獄的刑罰。

فَضْلًا مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

Chinese

那是由於你的主的恩典,那確是偉大的成功。

Japanese

あなたの主からの賜物,それこそは至福の成就であろ。

Sahih International

As bounty from your Lord. That is what is the great attainment.

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