VERSES
176
PAGES
77-106

Period of Revelation

This Surah comprises several discourses which were revealed on different occasions during the period ranging probably between the end of A.H. 3 and the end of A.H. 4 or the beginning of A.H. 5. Although it is difficult to determine the exact dates of their revelations, yet it is possible to assign to them a fairly correct period with the help of the Commandments and the events mentioned therein and the Traditions concerning them. A few instances are given below by way of illustration:

  1. We know that the instructions about the division of inheritance of the martyrs and for the safeguard of the rights of the orphans were sent down after the Battle of Uhd in which 70 Muslims were killed. Then naturally the question of the division of the inheritance of the martyrs and the safeguard of the rights of their orphans arose in many families at Al-Madinah. From this we conclude that vv. 1 -28 were revealed on that occasion.

  2. We learn from the Traditions that the Commandment about salat during war time was given on the occasion of Zat-ur-Riqa'a, an expedition which took place in A. H. 4. From this we conclude that the discourse containing v. 102 was revealed on that occasion.

  3. The last warning (v. 47) to the Jews was given before the Banu Nadir were exiled from Al-Madinah in Rabi'-ulAwwal, A. H. 4. From this it may safely be concluded that the discourse containing v. 47 must have been revealed some time before that date.

  4. The permission about tayammum (the performance of ablutions with pure dust, in case no water be available) was given during the Bani-al-Mustaliq expedition, which took place in A. H. 5.. Therefore the probable period of the revelation of the discourse containing v. 43 was A. H. 5.

Topics and Their Background

Let us now consider the social and historical considerations of the period in order to understand the Surah. All the discourses in this Surah deal with three main problems which confronted the Holy Prophet at the time. First of all, he was engaged in bringing about an all round development of the Islamic Community that had been formed at the time of his migration to Al-Madinah. For this purpose he was introducing new moral, cultural, social, economic and political ways in place of the old ones of the pre-Islamic period. The second thing that occupied his attention and efforts was the bitter struggle that was going on with the mushrik Arabs, the Jewish clans and the hypocrites who were opposing tooth and nail his mission of reform. Above all he had to propagate Islam in the face of the bitter opposition of these powers of evil with a view to capturing more and more minds and hearts.

Accordingly, detailed instructions have been given for the consolidation and strengthening of the Islamic Community in continuation of those given in Al-Baqarah. Principles for the smooth running of family life have been laid down and ways of settling family disputes have been taught. Rules have been prescribed for marriage and rights of wife and husband have been apportioned fairly and equitably. The status of women in the society has been determined and the declaration of the rights of orphans has been made laws and regulations have been laid down for the division of inheritance, and instructions have been given to reform economic affairs. The foundation of the penal code has been laid down drinking has been prohibited, and instructions have been given for cleanliness and purity. The Muslims have been taught the kind of relations good men should have with their Allah and fellow men. Instructions have been given for the maintenance of discipline in the Muslim Community.

The moral and religious condition of the people of the Book has been reviewed to teach lessons to the Muslims and to forewarn them to refrain from following in their footsteps. The conduct of the hypocrites has been criticized and the distinctive features of hypocrisy and true faith have been clearly marked off to enable the Muslims to distinguish between the two.

In order to cope with the aftermath of the Battle of Uhd, Inspiring discourses were sent down to urge the Muslims to face the enemy bravely, for the defeat in the Battle had so emboldened the mushrik Arab clans and the neighboring Jews and the hypocrites at home that they were threatening the Muslims on all sides. At this critical juncture, Allah filled the Muslims with courage and gave them such instructions as were needed during that period of war clouds. In order to counteract the fearful rumors that were being spread by the hypocrites and the Muslims of weak faith, they were asked to make a thorough inquiry into them and to inform the responsible people about them. Then they were experiencing some difficulties in offering their salat during the expeditions to some places where no water was available for performing their ablutions, etc. In such cases they were allowed to cleanse themselves with pure earth and to shorten the salat or to offer the "Salat of Fear", when they were faced with danger. Instructions were also given for the solution of the puzzling problem of those Muslims who were scattered among the unbelieving Arab clans and were often involved in war. They were asked to migrate to Al-Madinah, the abode of Islam.

This Surah also deals with the case of Bani Nadir who were showing a hostile and menacing attitude, in spite of the peace treaties they had made with the Muslims. They were openly siding with the enemies of Islam and hatching plots against the Holy Prophet and the Muslim Community even at Al-Madinah itself. They were taken to task for their inimical behavior and given a final warning to change their attitude, and were at last exiled from Al-Madinah on account of their misconduct.

The problem of the hypocrites, who had become very troublesome at that time, was involving the Believers in difficulties-- Therefore they were divided into different categories to enable the Muslims to deal with them appropriately.

Clear instructions were also given regarding the attitude they should adopt towards the non-belligerent clans. The most important thing needed at that time was to prepare the Muslims for the bitter struggle with the opponents of Islam. For this purpose greatest importance was attached to their character building, for it was obvious that the small Muslim Community could only come out successful, nay, survive, if the Muslims possessed high moral character. They were, therefore, enjoined to adopt the highest moral qualities and were severely criticized whenever any moral weakness was detected in them.

Though this Surah mainly deals with the moral and social reforms, yet due attention has been paid to propagation of Islam. On the one hand, the superiority of the Islamic morality and culture has been established over that of the Jews, Christians and mushriks; on the other hand, their wrong religious conceptions, their wrong morality and their evil acts have been criticized to prepare the ground for inviting them to the way of the Truth.

Subject: Consolidation of the Islamic Community

The main object of this Surah is to teach the Muslims the ways that unite a people and make them firm and strong. Introductions for the stability of family, which is the nucleus of community have been given. Then they have been urged to prepare themselves for defense. Side by side with these, they have been taught the importance of the propagation of Islam. Above all, the importance of the highest moral character in the scheme of consolidation of the Community has been impressed.

Topics and their Interconnection

Just, fair and equitable laws and regulations for the smooth running of family life have been laid down for the husband and wife. Detailed instructions have been given for the division of inheritance and due regard has been paid to the rights of orphans. 1 - 35

In order to inculcate the right spirit for the observance of rules and regulations, the Muslims have been enjoined to show generosity to all around them and to be free from meanness, selfishness, stinginess of mind, because this is essential for the consolidation of the Communities and helpful for the propagation of Islam. 36 - 42

The ways of the purification of mind and body for the offering of Salat have been taught because it plays the most important part in every scheme of moral and social reform. 43

After moral preparation, instructions for defense have been given. First of all, the Muslims have been warned to be on their guard against the cunning machinations and vile practices of the local Jews who were hostile to the New Movement. This caution was necessary for removing some possible misunderstanding that might have arisen on account of the pre-Islamic alliance between the people of Al-Madinah and the Jews. 44 - 57

Then they have been enjoined to place their trusts and offices of trust in the custody of honest and qualified persons, and to do what is just and right, and to obey Allah and His Messenger and those among themselves entrusted with the conduct of their affairs and to turn to Allah and His Messenger for the settlement of their disputes. As such an attitude and behavior alone can ensure consolidation, they have been strongly warned that any deviation from this path will lead to their disintegration. 58 - 72

After this pre-requisite, they have been exhorted to make preparation for defense and to fight bravely for the cause of Islam, without showing any kind of cowardice or weakness. They have also been warned to be on their guard against hypocrites. A line of demarcation has been drawn to distinguish the intentional shirkers from the helpless devotees. 73 - 100

Here again instructions have been given for the offering of Salat during military campaigns and actual fighting. This is to impress the importance of Salat even at the time of fear and danger. 101 - 103

Before proceeding on to the next topic, the Muslims have been exhorted to persevere in their fight without showing any kind of weakness. 104

In order to make the Islamic Community firm and strong for defense, the Muslims have been enjoined to observe the highest standard of justice. The Muslims are required to deal out strict justice even in case of the enemy, with whom they might be involved in war. They should also settle disputes between husband and wife with justice. In order to ensure this, they should keep their beliefs and deeds absolutely free from every kind of impurity and should become the standard bearers of justice. 105 - 135

Resuming the theme of defense, the Muslims have been warned to be on their guard against their enemies. They have been admonished to take necessary precautions against the machinations of the hypocrites and the unbelievers and the people of the Book. As belief in Allah, and Revelation and Life-after-death is the only safeguard against every kind of enemy, they should sincerely believe in and follow His Messenger, Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him). 136 - 175

Though this verse also deals with the family laws contained in verses 1 - 35, it has been added as a supplement at the end of this Surah because it was revealed long after An-Nisa was being recited as a complete Surah. 176

Source: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Quran

ﭑﭒﭓ

وَيَسْتَفْتُونَكَ فِي النِّسَاءِ ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِيهِنَّ وَمَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ فِي يَتَامَى النِّسَاءِ اللَّاتِي لَا تُؤْتُونَهُنَّ مَا كُتِبَ لَهُنَّ وَتَرْغَبُونَ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الْوِلْدَانِ وَأَن تَقُومُوا لِلْيَتَامَىٰ بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِهِ عَلِيمًا

Transliteration

Wayastaftoonaka fee annisa-iquli Allahu yufteekum feehinna wama yutlaAAalaykum fee alkitabi fee yatama annisa-iallatee la tu/toonahunna ma kutiba lahunnawatarghaboona an tankihoohunna walmustadAAafeenamina alwildani waan taqoomoo lilyatama bilqistiwama tafAAaloo min khayrin fa-inna Allaha kanabihi AAaleema

Dr. Ghali

And they ask you for your pronouncement concerning women. Say, " Allah pronounces concerning them, and what is recited to you in the Book concerning the orphan women (Or (possibly): women who have orphans. And Allah knows bests) to whom you do not bring what is prescribed for them, and (yet) you desire to marry them, and the (ones) deemed weak of the children (Literally: newborns) (and) that you keep up equity (Literally: set "things" up with equity) for orphans. And whatever charity you perform, then surely Allah has been Ever-Knowing of it.

وَإِنِ امْرَأَةٌ خَافَتْ مِن بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزًا أَوْ إِعْرَاضًا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَن يُصْلِحَا بَيْنَهُمَا صُلْحًا ۚ وَالصُّلْحُ خَيْرٌ ۗ وَأُحْضِرَتِ الْأَنفُسُ الشُّحَّ ۚ وَإِن تُحْسِنُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

Transliteration

Wa-ini imraatun khafat min baAAlihanushoozan aw iAAradan fala junaha AAalayhimaan yusliha baynahuma sulhan wassulhukhayrun waohdirati al-anfusu ashshuhhawa-in tuhsinoo watattaqoo fa-inna Allaha kanabima taAAmaloona khabeera

Dr. Ghali

And in case a woman fears non- compliance or veering away in her husband, then there is no fault in both of them if they make a righteous reconciliation between them; (Literally: that they reconcile a reconcile a reconciliation) and reconciliation is most charitable; and avarice is made ever present to selves (i.e., persons). And in case you do fair (deeds) and are pious (to Allah), then Allah has been Ever-Cognizant of whatever you do.

ﭿ

وَلَن تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَن تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّسَاءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ ۚ وَإِن تُصْلِحُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Dr. Ghali

And you will never be able to do justice between (your) wives, (Literally: women) even if you are (so) eager; yet do not incline away completely (Literally: incline away all inclining) (from one), so that you leave her (behind) as if she were suspended. And in case you (do) righteousness and are pious (to Allah), then surely Allah has been Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.

Transliteration

Walan tastateeAAoo an taAAdiloobayna annisa-i walaw harastum falatameeloo kulla almayli fatatharooha kalmuAAallaqatiwa-in tuslihoo watattaqoo fa-inna Allaha kanaghafooran raheema

وَإِن يَتَفَرَّقَا يُغْنِ اللَّهُ كُلًّا مِّن سَعَتِهِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ وَاسِعًا حَكِيمًا

Transliteration

Wa-in yatafarraqa yughni Allahukullan min saAAatihi wakana Allahu wasiAAan hakeema

Dr. Ghali

And in case they (both) part (from each other), Allah will enrich each (of them) of His Embracement; and Allah has (always) been Ever-Embracing, Ever-Wise.

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَلَقَدْ وَصَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَإِيَّاكُمْ أَنِ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ وَإِن تَكْفُرُوا فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَنِيًّا حَمِيدًا

Transliteration

Walillahi ma fee assamawatiwama fee al-ardi walaqad wassaynaallatheena ootoo alkitaba min qablikum wa-iyyakumani ittaqoo Allaha wa-in takfuroo fa-inna lillahi mafee assamawati wama fee al-ardiwakana Allahu ghaniyyan hameeda

Dr. Ghali

And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. And indeed We have already enjoined the ones to whom the Book was brought even before you and you (too): "Be pious to Allah." And in case you disbelieve, then surely to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth; and Allah has been Ever Affluent, (i.e. Literally: Ever-Rich) Ever-Praiseworthy.

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا

Dr. Ghali

And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth; and Allah suffices for an Ever-Trusted Trustee.

Transliteration

Walillahi ma fee assamawatiwama fee al-ardi wakafa billahiwakeela

إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ وَيَأْتِ بِآخَرِينَ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ قَدِيرًا

Transliteration

In yasha/ yuthhibkum ayyuha annasuwaya/ti bi-akhareena wakana Allahu AAalathalika qadeera

Dr. Ghali

In case He decides, He can put you away, O you mankind, and come up with others; and Allah has been Ever-Determiner over that.

ﯿ

مَّن كَانَ يُرِيدُ ثَوَابَ الدُّنْيَا فَعِندَ اللَّهِ ثَوَابُ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا

Dr. Ghali

Whoever is willing (to have) the requital of the present (life), (Literally: the lowly "life"; i.e. the life of this world) then in the Providence of Allah is the requital of the present (life) and the Hereafter; and Allah has been Ever-Hearing, Ever-Beholding.

Transliteration

Man kana yureedu thawaba addunyafaAAinda Allahi thawabu addunya wal-akhiratiwakana Allahu sameeAAan baseera

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ بِالْقِسْطِ شُهَدَاءَ لِلَّهِ وَلَوْ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوِ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ ۚ إِن يَكُنْ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقِيرًا فَاللَّهُ أَوْلَىٰ بِهِمَا ۖ فَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا الْهَوَىٰ أَن تَعْدِلُوا ۚ وَإِن تَلْوُوا أَوْ تُعْرِضُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

Dr. Ghali

O you who have believed, be constantly upright with equity (with others), witnesses for Allah, even if it be against yourselves or (your) parents and nearest kin. In case (the person) is rich or poor, then Allah is the Best Patron for both. So do not ever follow prejudice, so as to do justice; and in case you twist or veer away, then surely Allah has been Ever-Cognizant of whatever you do.

Transliteration

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanookoonoo qawwameena bilqisti shuhadaalillahi walaw AAala anfusikum awi alwalidayniwal-aqrabeena in yakun ghaniyyan aw faqeeran fallahuawla bihima fala tattabiAAoo alhawaan taAAdiloo wa-in talwoo aw tuAAridoo fa-inna Allahakana bima taAAmaloona khabeera

ﭿ

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ مِن قَبْلُ ۚ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

Transliteration

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooaminoo billahi warasoolihi walkitabiallathee nazzala AAala rasoolihi walkitabiallathee anzala min qablu waman yakfur billahiwamala-ikatihi wakutubihi warusulihi walyawmi al-akhirifaqad dalla dalalan baAAeeda

Dr. Ghali

O you who have believed, believe in Allah and His Messenger, and the Book which He has been sending down on His Messenger, and the Book which He sent down earlier. And whoever disbelieves in Allah, and His Angels, and His Books, and His Messengers, and the Last Day, then he has readily erred into far error.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ ازْدَادُوا كُفْرًا لَّمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ سَبِيلًا

Transliteration

Inna allatheena amanoo thummakafaroo thumma amanoo thumma kafaroo thumma izdadookufran lam yakuni Allahu liyaghfira lahum walaliyahdiyahum sabeela

Dr. Ghali

Surely (the ones) who believed, thereafter disbelieved, thereafter believed, thereafter disbelieved, thereafter increased in disbelief- Allah indeed is not (going) to forgive them nor is He indeed (going) to guide them on a way.

بَشِّرِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ بِأَنَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

Dr. Ghali

Give (good) tidings to the hypocrites that they will have a painful torment.

Transliteration

Bashshiri almunafiqeena bi-annalahum AAathaban aleema

الَّذِينَ يَتَّخِذُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَيَبْتَغُونَ عِندَهُمُ الْعِزَّةَ فَإِنَّ الْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا

Dr. Ghali

(The ones) who take to themselves the disbelievers for their constant patrons, apart from the believers; do they (inequitably) seek might in their presence? Then surely might altogether belongs to Allah.

Transliteration

Allatheena yattakhithoona alkafireenaawliyaa min dooni almu/mineena ayabtaghoona AAindahumualAAizzata fa-inna alAAizzata lillahi jameeAAa

ﯿ

وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ ۚ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِّثْلُهُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ جَامِعُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا

Dr. Ghali

And He has already been sending down upon you in the Book that, "When you hear the signs of Allah being disbelieved and mocked at, then do not sit with them until they wade into (i.e., take up "a subject") (some) other discourse; surely (in that case) you are like them. Surely Allah will be gathering the hypocrites and the disbelievers altogether in Hell,

Transliteration

Waqad nazzala AAalaykum fee alkitabian itha samiAAtum ayati Allahiyukfaru biha wayustahzao biha fala taqAAudoomaAAahum hatta yakhoodoo fee hadeethinghayrihi innakum ithan mithluhum inna Allaha jamiAAualmunafiqeena walkafireena fee jahannamajameeAAa

الَّذِينَ يَتَرَبَّصُونَ بِكُمْ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ فَتْحٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ قَالُوا أَلَمْ نَكُن مَّعَكُمْ وَإِن كَانَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ نَصِيبٌ قَالُوا أَلَمْ نَسْتَحْوِذْ عَلَيْكُمْ وَنَمْنَعْكُم مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ فَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ وَلَن يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيلًا

Transliteration

Allatheena yatarabbasoonabikum fa-in kana lakum fathun mina Allahi qalooalam nakun maAAakum wa-in kana lilkafireena naseebunqaloo alam nastahwith AAalaykum wanamnaAAkummina almu/mineena fallahu yahkumu baynakumyawma alqiyamati walan yajAAala Allahu lilkafireenaAAala almu/mineena sabeela

Dr. Ghali

(The ones) who await you; So, in case you gain a conquest from Allah, they say, "Were we not with you?" And in case the disbelievers get an assignment, (i.e. gain a success) they say, "Did we not have privilege over you, and did we not prevent (your defeat) by the believers?" Then Allah will judge between you on the Day of the Resurrection; and Allah will never grant (Literally: make) any way for the disbelievers over the believers.

ﭿ

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَىٰ يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Dr. Ghali

Surely the hypocrites try to deceive Allah, and He is deceiving them; and when they rise up for prayer, they rise up lazily, showing off to (other) men, and they do not remember Allah except a little.

Transliteration

Inna almunafiqeena yukhadiAAoonaAllaha wahuwa khadiAAuhum wa-itha qamooila assalati qamoo kusalayuraoona annasa wala yathkuroonaAllaha illa qaleela

مُّذَبْذَبِينَ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ لَا إِلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ وَلَا إِلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ ۚ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلًا

Dr. Ghali

Wavering between this (and that), not to these, nor to those; (Literally: nor to these) and he whom Allah leads into error, then you will never find for him a way.

Transliteration

Muthabthabeena bayna thalikala ila haola-i wala ilahaola-i waman yudlili Allahu falantajida lahu sabeela

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا

Dr. Ghali

O you who have believed, do not take to yourselves disbelievers as patrons apart from the believers. Are you willing to make for Allah an evident all-binding authority against you?

Transliteration

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tattakhithoo alkafireena awliyaamin dooni almu/mineena atureedoona an tajAAaloo lillahiAAalaykum sultanan mubeena

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الْأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا

Transliteration

Inna almunafiqeena fee addarkial-asfali mina annari walan tajida lahum naseera

Dr. Ghali

Surely the hypocrites will be in the basest bottom of the Fire; and you will never find for them a ready vindicator.

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِاللَّهِ وَأَخْلَصُوا دِينَهُمْ لِلَّهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَسَوْفَ يُؤْتِ اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Transliteration

Illa allatheena taboowaaslahoo waAAtasamoo billahiwaakhlasoo deenahum lillahi faola-ika maAAaalmu/mineena wasawfa yu/ti Allahu almu/mineena ajran AAatheema

Dr. Ghali

Except the ones who repent, and act righteously, and adhere firmly to Allah, and make their religion faithful to Allah; so, those are with the believers, and Allah will eventually bring the believers a magnificent reward.

مَّا يَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمْ إِن شَكَرْتُمْ وَآمَنتُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ شَاكِرًا عَلِيمًا

Transliteration

Ma yafAAalu Allahu biAAathabikumin shakartum waamantum wakana Allahu shakiranAAaleema

Dr. Ghali

What would Allah perform with tormenting you in case you thank (Him) and believe? And Allah has been Thankful, Ever-Knowing.

لَّا يُحِبُّ اللَّهُ الْجَهْرَ بِالسُّوءِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ إِلَّا مَن ظُلِمَ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ سَمِيعًا عَلِيمًا

Dr. Ghali

Allah does not love the loud (expression) of odious words except for him who has been done an injustice, and Allah has been Ever-Hearing, Ever-Knowing.

Transliteration

La yuhibbu Allahualjahra bissoo-i mina alqawli illa man thulimawakana Allahu sameeAAan AAaleema

إِن تُبْدُوا خَيْرًا أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ أَوْ تَعْفُوا عَن سُوءٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا قَدِيرًا

Dr. Ghali

In case you display a charitable (deed), or conceal it, or be clement towards an odious deed, then surely Allah has been Ever-Clement, Ever-Determiner.

Transliteration

In tubdoo khayran aw tukhfoohu aw taAAfooAAan soo-in fa-inna Allaha kana AAafuwwan qadeera

ﭿ

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا

Transliteration

Inna allatheena yakfuroona billahiwarusulihi wayureedoona an yufarriqoo bayna Allahiwarusulihi wayaqooloona nu/minu bibaAAdin wanakfuru bibaAAdinwayureedoona an yattakhithoo bayna thalika sabeela

Dr. Ghali

Surely the ones who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and would make a distinction between Allah and His Messengers, and say, "We believe in some, and disbelieve in some (others), " and would take to themselves a way in-between, (Literally: a way between that; i.e. away between this and that).

أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Dr. Ghali

Those are they (who are) truly the disbelievers; and We have readied for the disbelievers a degrading torment.

Transliteration

Ola-ika humu alkafiroona haqqanwaaAAtadna lilkafireena AAathaban muheena

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ أُولَٰئِكَ سَوْفَ يُؤْتِيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Dr. Ghali

And the ones who have believed in Allah and His Messengers and have made no distinction between any of them, those He will eventually bring them their rewards, and Allah has been Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.

Transliteration

Wallatheena amanoo billahiwarusulihi walam yufarriqoo bayna ahadin minhum ola-ikasawfa yu/teehim ojoorahum wakana Allahu ghafooranraheema

يَسْأَلُكَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ أَن تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ كِتَابًا مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ ۚ فَقَدْ سَأَلُوا مُوسَىٰ أَكْبَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَقَالُوا أَرِنَا اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ بِظُلْمِهِمْ ۚ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَعَفَوْنَا عَن ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا

Transliteration

Yas-aluka ahlu alkitabi an tunazzilaAAalayhim kitaban mina assama-i faqadsaaloo moosa akbara min thalika faqaloo arinaAllaha jahratan faakhathat-humu assaAAiqatubithulmihim thumma ittakhathoo alAAijla minbaAAdi ma jaat-humu albayyinatu faAAafawnaAAan thalika waatayna moosa sultananmubeena

Dr. Ghali

The population of the Book (Or: Family of the Book, i.e., the Jews and Christians) ask you to (keep) (Moses) bringing down upon them a Book from the heaven; yet they already asked Musa far greater than that; So they said, "Show us Allah openly." Then the stunning (thunderbolt) took them for their injustice. Thereafter they took to themselves the Calf, even after the supreme evidences came to them, yet We were clement (towards them) for that, and We brought M?s'a an evident all-binding authority.

ﯿ

وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَهُمُ الطُّورَ بِمِيثَاقِهِمْ وَقُلْنَا لَهُمُ ادْخُلُوا الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ لَا تَعْدُوا فِي السَّبْتِ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُم مِّيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا

Dr. Ghali

And We raised above them the Tur, (Mount) (taking) compact with them. And We said to them, "Enter in at the gate, constantly prostrating." And We said to them, "Do not be aggressors on the Sabbath, " (Mount) and We took from them a solemn compact.

Transliteration

WarafaAAna fawqahumu attoorabimeethaqihim waqulna lahumu odkhuloo albabasujjadan waqulna lahum la taAAdoo fee assabtiwaakhathna minhum meethaqan ghaleetha

فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِم مِّيثَاقَهُمْ وَكُفْرِهِم بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَقَتْلِهِمُ الْأَنبِيَاءَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ وَقَوْلِهِمْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ ۚ بَلْ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهَا بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Transliteration

Fabima naqdihim meethaqahumwakufrihim bi-ayati Allahi waqatlihimual-anbiyaa bighayri haqqin waqawlihim quloobunaghulfun bal tabaAAa Allahu AAalayhabikufrihim fala yu/minoona illa qaleela

Dr. Ghali

So, for their breaking of their compact, and their disbelieving in the signs of Allah, and their killing of the Prophesiers (i.e. prophets) untruthfully and their saying, "Our hearts are encased." No indeed, (but) Allah has stamped upon them for their disbelief; so they do not believe except a few.

وَبِكُفْرِهِمْ وَقَوْلِهِمْ عَلَىٰ مَرْيَمَ بُهْتَانًا عَظِيمًا

Dr. Ghali

And for their disbelief and their speaking against Maryam (Mary) a tremendous all-malicious (calumny).

Transliteration

Wabikufrihim waqawlihim AAalamaryama buhtanan AAatheema

ﭿ

وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ لَفِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ ۚ مَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ ۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًا

Dr. Ghali

And for their saying, "Surely we killed the Masih, Isa son of Maryam, (The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary) the Messenger of Allah." And in no way did they kill him, and in no way did they crucify him, but a resemblance of him was presented to them (i.e. the matter was made obscure for them through mutual resemblance). And surely the ones who differed about him are indeed in doubt about him. (Or: it, "that") In no way do they have any knowledge about him except the close following of surmise, and in no way did they kill him of a certainty.

Transliteration

Waqawlihim inna qatalnaalmaseeha AAeesa ibna maryama rasoola Allahiwama qataloohu wama salaboohu walakinshubbiha lahum wa-inna allatheena ikhtalafoo feehi lafeeshakkin minhu ma lahum bihi min AAilmin illa ittibaAAaaththanni wama qataloohu yaqeena

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