Allah states that He created everything, including the produce, fruits and cattle that the idolators mishandled by their misguided ideas, dividing them into various designated parts, allowing some and prohibiting some. Allah said,
(And it is He Who produces gardens Ma`rushat and not Ma`rushat,) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented, "Ma`rushat refers to what the people trellise, while `not Ma`rushat' refers to fruits (and produce) that grow wild inland and on mountains." `Ata' Al-Khurasani said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Ma`rushat are the grapevines that are trellised, while `not Ma`rushat' refers to grapevines that are not trellised." As-Suddi said similarly. As for these fruits being similar, yet different, Ibn Jurayj said, "They are similar in shape, but different in taste." Muhammad bin Ka`b said that the Ayah,
(Eat of their fruit when they ripen,) means, "(Eat) from the dates and grapes they produce." Allah said next,
(but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest, ) Mujahid commented, "When the poor people are present (on the day of harvest), give them some of the produce." `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Mujahid commented on the Ayah,
(but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest.) "When planting, one gives away handfuls (of seed grains) and on harvest, he gives away handfuls and allows them to pick whatever is left on the ground of the harvest." Ath-Thawri said that Hammad narrated that Ibrahim An-Nakha`i said, "One gives away some of the hay." Ibn Al-Mubarak said that Shurayk said that Salim said that Sa`id bin Jubayr commented;
(but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest,) "This ruling, giving the poor the handfuls (of seed grains) and some of the hay as food for their animals, was before Zakah became obligatory." Allah has chastised those who harvest, without giving away a part of it as charity. Allah mentioned the story of the owners of the garden in Surat Nun,
(When they swore to pluck the fruits of the (garden) in the morning. Without saying: "If Allah wills." Then there passed by on the (garden) a visitation (fire) from your Lord at night, burning it while they were asleep. So the (garden) became black by the morning, like a pitch dark night (in complete ruins). Then they called out one to another as soon as the morning broke. Saying: "Go to your tilth in the morning, if you would pluck the fruits." So they departed, conversing in secret low tones (saying). "No poor person shall enter upon you into it today." And they went in the morning with strong intention, thinking that they have power (to prevent the poor taking anything of the fruits therefrom). But when they saw the (garden), they said: "Verily, we have gone astray." (Then they said): "Nay! Indeed we are deprived of (the fruits)!" The best among them said: "Did I not tell you, why say you not: `If Allah wills'." They said: "Glory to Our Lord! Verily, we have been wrongdoers." Then they turned one against another, blaming. They said: "Woe to us! We have transgressed. We hope that our Lord will give us in exchange a better (garden) than this. Truly, we turn to our Lord." Such is the punishment (in this life), but truly, the punishment of the Hereafter is greater if they but knew.) 68:18-33.
(And waste not by extravagance. Verily, He likes not the wasteful.) It was said that the extravagance prohibited here refers to excessive charity beyond normal amounts. Ibn Jurayj said, "This Ayah was revealed concerning Thabit bin Qays bin Shammas, who plucked the fruits of his date palms. Then he said to himself, `This day, every person who comes to me, I will feed him from it.' So he kept feeding (them) until the evening came and he ended up with no dates. Allah sent down,
(And waste not by extravagance. Verily, He likes not the wasteful.)" Ibn Jarir recorded this statement from Ibn Jurayj. However, thhe apparent meaning of this Ayah, and Allah knows best, is that;
(Eat of their fruit when they ripen, but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest, and waste not...) refers to eating, meaning, do not waste in eating because this spoils the mind and the body. Allah said in another Ayah,
(And eat and drink but waste not by extravagance.) 7: 31 In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded a Hadith without a chain of narration; a
(Eat, drink and clothe yourselves without extravagance or arrogance.) Therefore, these Ayat have the same meaning as this Hadith. and Allah knows best.
(And of the cattle (are some) for burden and (some smaller) for Farsh.) means, He created cattle for you, some of which are suitable for burden, such as camels, and some are Farsh. Ath-Thawri narrated that Abu Ishaq said that Abu Al-Ahwas said that `Abdullah said that `animals for burden' are the camels that are used for carrying things, while, `Farsh', refers to small camels. Al-Hakim recorded it and said, "Its chain is Sahih and they did not record it." `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that `animals for burden' refers to the animals that people ride, while, `Farsh' is that they eat (its meat) and milk it. The sheep is not able to carry things, so you eat its meat and use its wool for covers and mats (or clothes). This statement of `Abdur-Rahman is sound, and the following Ayat testify to it,
(Do they not see that We have created for them of what Our Hands have created, the cattle, so that they are their owners. And We have subdued them unto them so that some of them they have for riding and some they eat.) 36:71-72, and,
(And verily, in the cattle, there is a lesson for you. We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies, from between excretions and blood, pure milk; palatable to the drinkers.) 16:66, until,
(And of their wool, fur and hair, furnishings and articles of convenience, comfort for a while.) 16:80.
(Eat of what Allah has provided for you,) of fruits, produce and cattle. Allah created all these and provided you with them as provision.
(and follow not the footsteps of Shaytan.) meaning, his way and orders, just as the idolators followed him and prohibited fruits and produce that Allah provided for them, claiming that this falsehood came from Allah.
(Surely, he is to you) meaning; Shaytan, O people, is to you,
(an open enemy) and his enmity to you is clear and apparent. Allah said in other Ayat,
(Surely, Shaytan is an enemy to you, so take (treat) him as an enemy. He only invites his Hizb (followers) that they may become the dwellers of the blazing Fire. ) 35:6 and,
(O Children of Adam! Let not Shaytan deceive you, as he got your parents out of Paradise, stripping them of their raiment, to show them their private parts.) 7:27 and,
(Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me while they are enemies to you What an evil is the exchange for the wrongdoers.)18:50 There are many other Ayat on this subject.