VERSES
120
PAGES
106-127

Name

This Surah takes its' name from verse 112 in which the word mai'dah occurs. Like the names of many other surahs, this name has no special relation to the subject of the Surah but has been used merely as a symbol to distinguish it from other surahs.

Period of Revelation

The theme of this Surah indicates, and traditions support it, that it was revealed after the treaty of Hudaibiyah at the end of 6 A. H. or in the beginning of 7 A. H. That is why it deals with those problems that arose from this treaty.

The Holy Prophet with 1400 Muslims went to Makkah in Zil-Qaadah 6 A.H. to perform `Umrah, but the Quraish spurred by their enmity, prevented him from its performance, though it was utterly against all the ancient religious traditions of Arabia. After a good deal of hard and harsh negotiations, a treaty was concluded at Hudaibiyah according to which it was agreed that he could perform `Umrah the following year. That was a very appropriate occasion for teaching the Muslims the right way of performing a pilgrimage to Makkah with the true Islamic dignity, and enjoining that they should not prevent the disbelievers from performing pilgrimage to Makkah as a retaliation for their misbehavior. This was not difficult at all as many disbelievers had to pass through Muslim territory on their way to Makkah. This is why the introductory verses deal with the things connected with pilgrimage to Makkah and the same theme has been resumed in vv. 101-104. The other topics of this Surah also appear to belong to the same period.

The continuity of the subject shows that most probably the whole of the Surah was revealed as a single discourse at one and the same time. It is also possible that some of its verses were revealed at a later period and inserted in this Surah at different places where they fitted in. But there appears to be not the least gap anywhere in the Surah to show that it might have comprised two or more discourses.

Occasion of Revelation

This Surah was revealed to suit the requirements of the changed conditions which were now different from those prevailing at the time of the revelation of Al-i-'Imran and An- Nisa. Then the shock of the set-back at Uhd had made the very surroundings of Al-Madinah dangerous for the Muslims, but now Islam had become an invulnerable power and the Islamic State had extended to Najd on the east, to the Red Sea on the west, to Syria on the north and to Makkah on the south. This set-back which the Muslims had suffered at Uhd had not broken their determination. It had rather spurred them to action. As a result of their continuous struggle and unparalleled sacrifices, the power of. the surrounding clans, within a radius of 200 miles or so, had been broken. The Jewish menace which was always threatening Al-Madinah had been totally removed and the Jews in the other parts of Hijaz had-become tributaries of the State of Al-Madinah. The last effort of the Quraish to suppress Islam had been thwarted in the Battle of the Ditch. After this, it had become quite obvious to the Arabs that no power could suppress the Islamic movement. Now Islam was not merely a creed which ruled over the minds and hearts of the people but had also become a State which dominated over every aspect of the life of the people who lived within its boundaries. This had enabled the Muslims to live their lives without let or hindrance, in accordance with their beliefs.

Another development had also taken place during this period. The Muslim civilization had developed in accordance with the principles of Islam and the Islamic viewpoint. This civilization was quite distinct from all other civilizations in all its' details, and distinguished the Muslims clearly from the non Muslims in their moral, social and cultural behavior. Mosques had been built in all territories, prayer had been established and' Imam (leader) for every habitation and clan had been appointed. The Islamic civil and criminal laws had been formulated in detail and were being enforced through the Islamic courts. New and reformed ways of trade and commerce had taken the place of the old ones. The Islamic laws of marriage and divorce, of the segregation of the sexes, of the punishment for adultery and calumny and the like had cast the social life of the Muslims in a special mold. Their social behavior, their conversation, their dress, their very mode of living, their culture etc., had taken a definite shape of its own. As a result of all these changes, the non-Muslims could not expect that the Muslims would ever return to their former fold.

Before the treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Muslims were so engaged in their struggle with the non-Muslim Quraish that they got no time to propagate their message. This hindrance was removed by what was apparently a defeat but in reality a victory at Hudaibiyah. This gave the Muslims not only peace in their own territory but also respite to spread their message in the surrounding territories. Accordingly the Holy Prophet addressed letters to the rulers of Iran, Egypt and the Roman Empire and the chiefs of Arabia, inviting them to Islam. At the same time the missionaries of Islam spread among the clans and tribes and invited them to accept the Divine Way of Allah. These were the circumstances at the time when Al-Ma'idah was revealed.

Topics

It deals with the following three main topics:

  1. Commandments and instructions about the religious, cultural and political life of the Muslims.

    In this connection, a code of ceremonial rules concerning the journey for Haj has been prescribed; the observance of strict respect for the emblems of Allah has been enjoined; and any kind of obstruction or interference with the pilgrims to the Kaabah has been prohibited. Definite rules and regulations have been laid down for what is lawful and unlawful in the matter of food, and self-imposed foolish restrictions of the pre-Islamic age have been abolished. Permission has been given to. take food with the people of the Book and to marry their women. Rules and regulations for the performance of Wudu (ablutions) and bath and purification and tayammum (ablutions with dust) have been prescribed. Punishment for rebellion, disturbance of peace and theft have been specified. Drinking and gambling have absolutely been made unlawful. Expiation for the breaking of oath has been laid down and a few more things have been added to the law of evidence.

  2. Admonition to the Muslims.

    Now that the Muslims had become a ruling body, it was feared that power might corrupt them. At this period of great trial, Allah had admonished them over and over again to stick to justice and to guard against the wrong behavior of their predecessors, the people of the Book. They have been enjoined to remain steadfast to the Covenant of obedience to Allah and His Messenger, and to observe strictly their commands and prohibitions in order to save them- selves from the evil consequences which. befell the Jews and the Christians who had violated them. They have been instructed to observe the dictates of the Holy Quran in the conduct of all their affairs and warned against the attitude of hypocrisy.

  3. Admonition to the Jews and the Christians.

    As the power of the Jews had been totally weakened and almost all their habitations in north Arabia had come under the rule of the Muslims, they have been warned again about their wrong attitude and invited to follow the Right Way. At the same time a detailed invitation has also been extended to the Christians. The errors of their creeds have been clearly pointed out and they have been admonished to accept the guidance of the Holy Prophet. . Incidentally, it may be noted that no direct invitation has been made to the Majusis and idolaters living in the adjoining countries, because there was no need for a separate address for them as their condition. had already been covered by the addresses to the mushrik Arabs.

Subject: Consolidation of the Islamic Community

In continuation of the instructions about the consolidation of the Islamic Community given in Surah An-Nisa, the Muslims have been directed to observe and fulfill all their obligations: further regulations have been prescribed to train the Muslims for that purpose.

They have also been particularly warned as rulers to guard against the corruption, of power and directed to observe the Covenant of the Quran. They have also been exhorted to learn lessons from the failings of their predecessors, the Jews and the Christians, who in their turn have been admonished to give up their wrong attitudes towards the Right Way and accept the guidance taught by Prophet Muhammad (God's peace be upon him).

Topics and their Interconnection

The Believers have been exhorted to fulfill scrupulously all of their obligations and follow the regulations prescribed by the Divine Law about food, sex, Salat, justice, etc. 1 - 10

The Muslims have been warned to guard against the errors of their predecessors; they should follow the Right Path and avoid the bad example of the Jews and the Christians, who broke their Covenants and went astray into evil ways. They, in their turn, have been admonished to give up their wrong ways and accept Islam. 11 - 26

The story of the two sons of Adam has been related to reproach the Jews for their plot to kill the Holy Prophet and his Companions. (v. 11 & E.N. 30). The story has also been used to emphasize the sanctity of human life. 27 - 32

To achieve this object, punishments have been prescribed for those who create chaos in the Islamic State, and the Believers have been urged to exert their utmost to establish the Right Way; the sanctity of property has also been emphasized. 33 - 40

The Holy Prophet (and through him the Muslims) has been reassured that he should not mind the enmity, the evil designs and the machinations of the Jews, but continue exerting his utmost to establish the Right Way in accordance with the Guidance of the Quran; for nothing better could be expected from those who had forsaken their own Torah. He should deal with the Christians likewise, for they, too, had forsaken their Gospel. 41 - 50

In view of the degenerate moral condition of the Jews and the Christians, the Believers have been warned not to make them their friends and confidants. Likewise they should be on their guard against the evil designs of the hypocrites, the disbelievers and the like and should rely on the true Believers alone. The people of the Book have, in their turn been exhorted to give up their enmity and adopt the right attitude, for they cannot get salvation without this. 51 - 69

The theme of the corruptions of the Jews and Christians has been resumed. The Christians especially have been reproved for their errors in regard to the doctrine of Tauhid. At the same time they have been preferred to the hard hearted Jews, for there are among them some who are more inclined towards the Truth. 70 - 86

In this portion of the Surah, further regulations about the lawful and the un-lawful, in addition to those contained in vv. 1 - 10, have been given. 87 - 108

At the end of the Surah, the mention of the conversation that will take place between Allah and His Prophets on the Day of Judgment, has been made for the benefit of the erring people to serve as a corrective to their creeds. The conversation with Prophet Christ has been cited as a specimen to warn particularly the Christians, who profess to believe in him, and generally all those people who put false hopes in their Prophets, etc. 109 - 119

Conclusion: "O man-kind! The Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah: therefore you should become His true servants and fear Him, for He has full powers over everything." 120

Source: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Quran

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5:62

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French

Et tu verras beaucoup d'entre eux se précipiter vers le péché et l'iniquité, et manger des gains illicites. Comme est donc mauvais ce qu'ils oeuvrent !

Sahih International

And you see many of them hastening into sin and aggression and the devouring of [what is] unlawful. How wretched is what they have been doing.

5:63

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French

Pourquoi les rabbins et les docteurs (de la Loi religieuse) ne les empêchent-ils pas de tenir des propos mensongers et de manger des gains illicites ? Que leurs actions sont donc mauvaises !

Sahih International

Why do the rabbis and religious scholars not forbid them from saying what is sinful and devouring what is unlawful? How wretched is what they have been practicing.

5:64

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Sahih International

And the Jews say, "The hand of Allah is chained." Chained are their hands, and cursed are they for what they say. Rather, both His hands are extended; He spends however He wills. And that which has been revealed to you from your Lord will surely increase many of them in transgression and disbelief. And We have cast among them animosity and hatred until the Day of Resurrection. Every time they kindled the fire of war [against you], Allah extinguished it. And they strive throughout the land [causing] corruption, and Allah does not like corrupters.

French

Et les Juifs disent : "La main d'Allah est fermée ! " Que leurs propres mains soient fermées, et maudits soient-ils pour l'avoir dit. Au contraire, Ses deux mains sont largement ouvertes : Il distribue Ses dons comme Il veut. Et certes, ce qui a été descendu vers toi de la part de ton Seigneur va faire beaucoup croître parmi eux la rébellion et la mécréance. Nous avons jeté parmi eux l'inimité et la haine jusqu'au Jour de la Résurrection. Toutes les fois qu'ils allument un feu pour la guerre, Allah l'éteint. Et ils s'efforcent de semer le désordre sur la terre, alors qu'Allah n'aime pas les semeurs de désordre.

5:65

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French

Si les gens du Livre avaient la foi et la piété, Nous leur aurions certainement effacé leurs méfaits et les aurions certainement introduits dans les Jardins du délice .

Sahih International

And if only the People of the Scripture had believed and feared Allah , We would have removed from them their misdeeds and admitted them to Gardens of Pleasure.

5:66

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French

S'ils avaient appliqué la Thora et l'évangile et ce qui est descendu sur eux de la part de leur Seigneur, ils auraient certainement joui de ce qui est au-dessus d'eux et de ce qui est sous leurs pieds . Il y a parmi eux un groupe qui agit avec droiture; mais pour beaucoup d'entre eux, comme est mauvais ce qu'ils font !

Sahih International

And if only they upheld [the law of] the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to them from their Lord, they would have consumed [provision] from above them and from beneath their feet. Among them are a moderate community, but many of them - evil is that which they do.

5:67

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Sahih International

O Messenger, announce that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not conveyed His message. And Allah will protect you from the people. Indeed, Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.

French

ô Messager, transmets ce qui t'a été descendu de la part de ton Seigneur. Si tu ne le faisait pas, alors tu n'aurais pas communiqué Son message. Et Allah te protégera des gens. Certes, Allah ne guide pas les gens mécréants.

5:68

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French

Dis : "ô gens du Livre, vous ne tenez sur rien, tant que vous ne vous conformez pas à la Thora et à l'évangile et à ce qui vous a été descendu de la part de votre Seigneur." ." Et certes, ce qui t'a été descendu de la part de ton Seigneur va accroître beaucoup d'entre eux en rébellion et en mécréance. Ne te tourmente donc pas pour les gens mécréants.

Sahih International

Say, "O People of the Scripture, you are [standing] on nothing until you uphold [the law of] the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to you from your Lord." And that which has been revealed to you from your Lord will surely increase many of them in transgression and disbelief. So do not grieve over the disbelieving people.

5:69

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Sahih International

Indeed, those who have believed [in Prophet Muhammad] and those [before Him] who were Jews or Sabeans or Christians - those [among them] who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness - no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.

French

Ceux qui ont cru, ceux qui se sont judaïsés, les Sabéens, et les Chrétiens, ceux parmi eux qui croient en Allah, au Jour dernier et qui accomplissent les bonnes oeuvres, pas de crainte sur eux, et ils ne seront point affligés.

5:70

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Sahih International

We had already taken the covenant of the Children of Israel and had sent to them messengers. Whenever there came to them a messenger with what their souls did not desire, a party [of messengers] they denied, and another party they killed.

French

Certes, Nous avions déjà pris l'engagement des Enfants d'Israël, et Nous leur avions envoyé des messagers. Mais chaque fois qu'un Messager leur vient avec ce qu'ils ne désirent pas, ils en traitent certains de menteurs et ils en tuent d'autres.

5:71

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French

Comptant qu'il n'y aurait pas de sanction contre eux, ils étaient devenus aveugles et sourds. Puis Allah accueillit leur repentir. Ensuite, beaucoup d'entre eux redevinrent aveugles et sourds. Et Allah voit parfaitement ce qu'ils font.

Sahih International

And they thought there would be no [resulting] punishment, so they became blind and deaf. Then Allah turned to them in forgiveness; then [again] many of them became blind and deaf. And Allah is Seeing of what they do.

5:72

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French

Ce sont, certes, des mécréants ceux qui disent : "En vérité, Allah c'est le Messie, fils de Marie." Alors que le Messie a dit : "ô enfants d'Israël, adorez Allah, mon Seigneur et votre Seigneur". Quiconque associe à Allah (d'autres divinités) Allah lui interdit le Paradis; et son refuge sera le Feu. Et pour les injustes, pas de secoureurs !

Sahih International

They have certainly disbelieved who say, " Allah is the Messiah, the son of Mary" while the Messiah has said, "O Children of Israel, worship Allah , my Lord and your Lord." Indeed, he who associates others with Allah - Allah has forbidden him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire. And there are not for the wrongdoers any helpers.

5:73

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Sahih International

They have certainly disbelieved who say, " Allah is the third of three." And there is no god except one God. And if they do not desist from what they are saying, there will surely afflict the disbelievers among them a painful punishment.

French

Ce sont certes des mécréants, ceux qui disent : "En vérité, Allah est le troisième de trois." Alors qu'il n'y a de divinité qu'Une Divinité Unique ! Et s'ils ne cessent de le dire, certes, un châtiment douloureux touchera les mécréants d'entre eux.

5:74

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Sahih International

So will they not repent to Allah and seek His forgiveness? And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

French

Ne vont-ils donc pas se repentir à Allah et implorer Son pardon ? Car Allah est Pardonneur et Miséricordieux.

5:75

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Sahih International

The Messiah, son of Mary, was not but a messenger; [other] messengers have passed on before him. And his mother was a supporter of truth. They both used to eat food. Look how We make clear to them the signs; then look how they are deluded.

French

Le Messie, fils de Marie, n'était qu'un Messager. Des messagers sont passés avant lui. Et sa mère était une véridique. Et tous deux consommaient de la nourriture. Vois comme Nous leur expliquons les preuves et puis vois comme ils se détournent .

5:76

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French

Dis : "Adorez-vous, au lieu d'Allah, ce qui n'a le pouvoir de vous faire ni le mal ni le bien ? " Or c'est Allah qui est l'Audient et l'Omniscient.

Sahih International

Say, "Do you worship besides Allah that which holds for you no [power of] harm or benefit while it is Allah who is the Hearing, the Knowing?"

5:77

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Sahih International

Say, "O People of the Scripture, do not exceed limits in your religion beyond the truth and do not follow the inclinations of a people who had gone astray before and misled many and have strayed from the soundness of the way."

French

Dis : "ô gens du Livre, n'exagérez pas en votre religion, s'opposant à la vérité. Ne suivez pas les passions des gens qui se sont égarés avant cela, qui ont égaré beaucoup de monde et qui se sont égarés du chemin droit.

5:78

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Sahih International

Cursed were those who disbelieved among the Children of Israel by the tongue of David and of Jesus, the son of Mary. That was because they disobeyed and [habitually] transgressed.

French

Ceux des Enfants d'Israël qui n'avaient pas cru ont été maudits par la bouche de David et de Jésus fils de Marie, parce qu'ils désobéissaient et transgressaient.

5:79

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Sahih International

They used not to prevent one another from wrongdoing that they did. How wretched was that which they were doing.

French

Ils ne s'interdisaient pas les uns aux autres ce qu'ils faisaient de blâmable. Comme est mauvais, certes, ce qu'ils faisaient !

5:80

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French

Tu vois beaucoup d'entre eux s'allier aux mécréants. Comme est mauvais, certes, ce que leurs âmes ont préparé, pour eux-mêmes, de sorte qu'ils ont encouru le courroux d'Allah, et c'est dans le supplice qu'ils éterniseront.

Sahih International

You see many of them becoming allies of those who disbelieved. How wretched is that which they have put forth for themselves in that Allah has become angry with them, and in the punishment they will abide eternally.

5:81

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French

S'ils croyaient en Allah, au Prophète et à ce qui lui a été descendu, ils ne prendraient pas ces mécréants pour alliés. Mais beaucoup d'entre eux sont pervers.

Sahih International

And if they had believed in Allah and the Prophet and in what was revealed to him, they would not have taken them as allies; but many of them are defiantly disobedient.

5:82

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French

Tu trouveras certainement que les Juifs et les associateurs sont les ennemis les plus acharnés des croyants. Et tu trouveras certes que les plus disposés à aimer les croyants sont ceux qui disent : "Nous sommes chrétiens." C'est qu'il y a parmi eux des prêtres et des moines, et qu'ils ne s'enflent pas d'orgueil.

Sahih International

You will surely find the most intense of the people in animosity toward the believers [to be] the Jews and those who associate others with Allah ; and you will find the nearest of them in affection to the believers those who say, "We are Christians." That is because among them are priests and monks and because they are not arrogant.

5:83

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Sahih International

And when they hear what has been revealed to the Messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with tears because of what they have recognized of the truth. They say, "Our Lord, we have believed, so register us among the witnesses.

French

Et quand ils entendent ce qui a été descendu sur le Messager [Muhammad], tu vois leurs yeux déborder de larmes, parce qu'ils ont reconnu la vérité. Ils disent : "ô notre Seigneur ! Nous croyons : inscris-nous donc parmi ceux qui témoignent (de la véracité du Coran).

5:84

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Sahih International

And why should we not believe in Allah and what has come to us of the truth? And we aspire that our Lord will admit us [to Paradise] with the righteous people."

French

Pourquoi ne croirions-nous pas en Allah et à ce qui nous est parvenu de la vérité. Pourquoi ne convoitions-nous pas que notre Seigneur nous fasse entrer en la compagnie des gens vertueux ? ".

5:85

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French

Allah donc les récompense pour ce qu'ils disent par des Jardins sous lesquels coulent les ruisseaux, où ils demeureront éternellement. Telle est la récompense des bienfaisants.

Sahih International

So Allah rewarded them for what they said with gardens [in Paradise] beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally. And that is the reward of doers of good.

5:86

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Sahih International

But those who disbelieved and denied Our signs - they are the companions of Hellfire.

French

Et quant à ceux qui ne croient pas et qui traitent de mensonges Nos versets, ce sont les gens de la Fournaise.

5:87

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Sahih International

O you who have believed, do not prohibit the good things which Allah has made lawful to you and do not transgress. Indeed, Allah does not like transgressors.

French

ô les croyants : ne déclarez pas illicites les bonnes choses qu'Allah vous a rendues licites. Et ne transgressez pas. Allah, (en vérité,) n'aime pas les transgresseurs.

5:88

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French

Et mangez de ce qu'Allah vous a attribué de licite et de bon. Craignez Allah, en qui vous avez foi.

Sahih International

And eat of what Allah has provided for you [which is] lawful and good. And fear Allah , in whom you are believers.

5:89

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Sahih International

Allah will not impose blame upon you for what is meaningless in your oaths, but He will impose blame upon you for [breaking] what you intended of oaths. So its expiation is the feeding of ten needy people from the average of that which you feed your [own] families or clothing them or the freeing of a slave. But whoever cannot find [or afford it] - then a fast of three days [is required]. That is the expiation for oaths when you have sworn. But guard your oaths. Thus does Allah make clear to you His verses that you may be grateful.

French

Allah ne vous sanctionne pas pour la frivolité dans vos serments, mais Il vous sanctionne pour les serments que vous avez l'intention d'exécuter. L'expiation en sera de nourrir dix pauvres, de ce dont vous nourrissez normalement vos familles, ou de les habiller, ou de libérer un esclave. Quiconque n'en trouve pas les moyens devra jeûner trois jours. Voilà l'expiation pour vos serments, lorsque vous avez juré. Et tenez à vos serments, Ainsi Allah vous explique Ses versets, afin que vous soyez reconnaissants !

5:90

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French

ô les croyants ! Le vin, le jeu de hasard, les pierres dressées, les flèches de divination ne sont qu'une abomination, oeuvre du Diable. écartez-vous en, afin que vous réussissiez.

Sahih International

O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, [sacrificing on] stone alters [to other than Allah ], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful.

5:91

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Sahih International

Satan only wants to cause between you animosity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling and to avert you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. So will you not desist?

French

Le Diable ne veut que jeter parmi vous, à travers le vin et le jeu de hasard, l'inimité et la haine, et vous détourner d'invoquer Allah et de la Salat. Allez-vous donc y mettre fin ?

5:92

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Sahih International

And obey Allah and obey the Messenger and beware. And if you turn away - then know that upon Our Messenger is only [the responsibility for] clear notification.

French

Obéissez à Allah, obéissez au Messager, et prenez garde ! Si ensuite vous vous détournez... alors sachez qu'il n'incombe à Notre messager que de transmettre le message clairement. .

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