VERSES
38
PAGES
507-510

Name

The Surah derives its name from the sentence wa amanu bi-ma nuzzila ala Muhammad-in of verse 2, thereby implying that it is the Surah in which the holy name of Muhammad (upon wham be Allah's peace and blessings) has occurred. Besides, it has another well known name "al-Qital " also, which is derived from the sentence wa dhukira fi-hal-qital of verse 20.

Period of Revelation

The contents of this Surah testify that it was sent down after the hijrah at Madinah at the time when the fighting had been enjoined, though active fighting had not yet been undertaken. Detailed arguments in support of this view have been given in E. N. 8 below.

Historical Background

The conditions at the time when this Surah was sent down were such that the Muslims were being made the target of persecution and tyranny in Makkah in particular and in Arabia in general, and life had become miserable for them. Although the Muslims had emigrated to the haven of Madinah from every side, the disbelieving Quraish were not prepared to leave them alone and let them live in peace even there. Thus, the small settlement of Madinah was hemmed in by the enemy, who was bent upon exterminating it completely. The only alternative left with the Muslims were that either they should surrender to the forces of ignorance, giving up their mission of preaching the true Faith, or even following it in their private lives, or should rise to wage a war at the cost of their lives to settle finally and for ever whether Islam would stay in Arabia or the creed of ignorance. On this occasion Allah showed the Muslims the same way of resolution and will, which is the only way for the true believers. He first permitted them to fight in Surah Al Hajj 39 and then enjoined fighting in Al Baqarah 190. But at that time everyone knew fully well what it meant to wage a war in those conditions. There were only a handful of Muslims in Madinah, who could not muster even a thousand soldiers; yet they were being urged to take up the sword and clash against the pagan forces of the whole of Arabia. Then the kind of the weapons needed to equip its soldiers for war could hardly be afforded by the town in which hundreds of emigrants were still homeless and unsettled even by resort to starving its members at a time when it had been boycotted economically by the Arabs on all sides.

Theme and Subject Matter

Such were the conditions when this Surah was revealed. Its theme is to prepare the believers for war and to give them preliminary instructions in this regard. That is why it has also been entitled al-Qital. It deals with the following topics:

At the outset it is said that of the two groups confronting each other at this time, one has refused to accept the Truth and has become an obstruction for others on the way of Allah, while the other group has accepted the Truth which had been sent down by Allah to His servant, Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings). Now, Allah's final decision is that He has rendered fruitless and vain all the works of the former group and set right the condition and affairs of the latter group.

After this, the Muslims have been given the initial war instructions they have been reassured of Allah's help and guidance: they have been given hope for the best rewards on offering sacrifices in the cause of Allah and they have been assured that their struggle in the cause of the Truth will not go to waste, but they will be abundantly rewarded both in this world and in the Hereafter.

Furthermore, about the disbelievers it has been said that they are deprived of Allah's support and guidance: none of their designs will succeed in their conflict with the believers, and they will meet a most evil fate both in this world and in the Hereafter. They thought they had achieved a great success by driving the Prophet of Allah out of Makkah, but in fact by this they had hastened their own doom.

After this, the discourse turns to the hypocrites, who were posing to be sincere Muslims before the command to fight was sent down, but were confounded when this command actually came down, and began to conspire with the disbelievers in order to save themselves from the hazards of war. They have been plainly warned to the effect that no act and deed is acceptable to Allah of those who adopt hypocrisy with regard to Him and His Prophet. There, the basic issue against which all those who profess the Faith are being tried is whether one is on the side of the Truth or Falsehood, whether one's sympathies are with Islam and the Muslims or with disbelief and the disbelievers, whether one keeps one's own self and interests dearer or the Truth which one professes to believe in and follow. One who fails in this test is not at all a believer; his Prayer and his Fasting and his discharging of the zakat deserve no reward from Allah.

Then the Muslims have been exhorted not to lose heart for being small in numbers and ill equipped as against the great strength of the disbelievers: they should not show weakness by offering peace to them, which might still further embolden them against Islam and the Muslims, but they should come out with trust in Allah and clash with the mighty forces of disbelief. Allah is with the Muslims: they alone shall triumph; and the might of disbelief will be humbled and vanquished.

In conclusion, the Muslims have been invited to spend their wealth in the cause of Allah. Although at that time they were economically very weak, the problem that they confronted was the very survival of Islam and the Muslims. The importance and delicacy of the problem demanded that the Muslims should not only risk their lives for safeguarding themselves and their Faith from the dominance of disbelief and for exalting Allah's Religion but should also expend their economic resources as far as possible in the preparations for war. Therefore, they were clearly warned to the effect. Anyone who adopted a niggardly attitude at the time, would not, in fact, harm Allah at all, but would result in his own destruction, for Allah does not stand in need of help from men. If one group of men shirked offering sacrifices in the cause of His Religion, Allah would remove it and bring another group in its place.

Source: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Quran

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47:9

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Yang demikian itu adalah karena Sesungguhnya mereka benci kepada apa yang diturunkan Allah (Al Quran) lalu Allah menghapuskan (pahala-pahala) amal-amal mereka.

47:10

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Maka apakah mereka tidak mengadakan perjalanan di muka bumi sehingga mereka dapat memperhatikan bagaimana kesudahan orang-orang sebelum mereka; Allah telah menimpakan kebinasaan atas mereka dan orang-orang kafir akan menerima (akibat-akibat) seperti itu.

47:11

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Yang demikian itu karena sesungguhnya Allah adalah pelindung orang-orang yang beriman dan karena sesungguhnya orang-orang kafir itu tidak mempunyai pelindung.

47:12

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Sesungguhnya Allah memasukkan orang-orang mukmin dan beramal saleh ke dalam jannah yang mengalir di bawahnya sungai-sungai. Dan orang-orang kafir bersenang-senang (di dunia) dan mereka makan seperti makannya binatang. Dan jahannam adalah tempat tinggal mereka.

47:13

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Dan betapa banyaknya negeri yang (penduduknya) lebih kuat dari pada (penduduk) negerimu (Muhammad) yang telah mengusirmu itu. Kami telah membinasakan mereka, maka tidak ada seorang penolongpun bagi mereka.

47:14

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Maka apakah orang yang berpegang pada keterangan yang datang dari Rabbnya sama dengan orang yang (shaitan) menjadikan dia memandang baik perbuatannya yang buruk itu dan mengikuti hawa nafsunya?

47:15

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(Apakah) perumpamaan (penghuni) jannah yang dijanjikan kepada orang-orang yang bertakwa yang di dalamnya ada sungai-sungai dari air yang tiada berubah rasa dan baunya, sungai-sungai dari air susu yang tidak berubah rasanya, sungai-sungai dari khamar yang lezat rasanya bagi peminumnya dan sungai-sungai dari madu yang disaring; dan mereka memperoleh di dalamnya segala macam buah-buahan dan ampunan dari Rabb mereka, sama dengan orang yang kekal dalam jahannam dan diberi minuman dengan air yang mendidih sehingga memotong ususnya?

47:16

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Dan di antara mereka ada orang yang mendengarkan perkataanmu sehingga apabila mereka keluar dari sisimu orang-orang berkata kepada orang yang telah diberi ilmu pengetahuan (sahabat-sahabat Nabi): "Apakah yang dikatakannya tadi?" Mereka itulah orang-orang yang dikunci mati hati mereka oleh Allah dan mengikuti hawa nafsu mereka.

47:17

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Dan orang-orang yang mau menerima petunjuk, Allah menambah petunjuk kepada mereka dan memberikan balasan ketakwaannya.

47:18

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Maka tidaklah yang mereka tunggu-tunggu melainkan hari kiamat (yaitu) kedatangannya kepada mereka dengan tiba-tiba, karena sesungguhnya telah datang tanda-tandanya. Maka apakah faedahnya bagi mereka kesadaran mereka itu apabila Kiamat sudah datang?

47:19

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Maka ketahuilah, bahwa sesungguhnya tidak ada Ilah (sesembahan, tuhan) selain Allah dan mohonlah ampunan bagi dosamu dan bagi (dosa) orang-orang mukmin, laki-laki dan perempuan. Dan Allah mengetahui tempat kamu berusaha dan tempat kamu tinggal.

47:20

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Dan orang-orang yang beriman berkata: "Mengapa tiada diturunkan suatu surat?" Maka apabila diturunkan suatu surat yang jelas maksudnya dan disebutkan di dalamnya (perintah) perang, kamu lihat orang-orang yang ada penyakit di dalam hatinya memandang kepadamu seperti pandangan orang yang pingsan karena takut mati, dan kecelakaanlah bagi mereka.

47:21

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Taat dan mengucapkan perkataan yang baik (adalah lebih baik bagi mereka). Apabila telah tetap perintah perang (mereka tidak menyukainya). Tetapi jikalau mereka benar (imannya) terhadap Allah, niscaya yang demikian itu lebih baik bagi mereka.

47:22

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Maka apakah kiranya jika kamu berkuasa kamu akan membuat kerusakan di muka bumi dan memutuskan hubungan kekeluargaan?

47:23

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Mereka itulah orang-orang yang dilaknati Allah dan ditulikan-Nya telinga mereka dan dibutakan-Nya penglihatan mereka.

47:24

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Maka apakah mereka tidak memperhatikan Al Quran ataukah hati mereka terkunci?

47:25

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Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang kembali ke belakang (kepada kekafiran) sesudah petunjuk itu jelas bagi mereka, syaitan telah menjadikan mereka mudah (berbuat dosa) dan memanjangkan angan-angan mereka.

47:26

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Yang demikian itu karena sesungguhnya mereka (orang-orang munafik) itu berkata kepada orang-orang yang benci kepada apa yang diturunkan Allah (orang-orang Yahudi): "Kami akan mematuhi kamu dalam beberapa urusan", sedang Allah mengetahui rahasia mereka.

47:27

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Bagaimanakah (keadaan mereka) apabila malaikat mencabut nyawa mereka seraya memukul-mukul muka mereka dan punggung mereka?

47:28

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Yang demikian itu adalah karena sesungguhnya mereka mengikuti apa yang menimbulkan kemurkaan Allah dan karena mereka membenci keridhaan-Nya, sebab itu Allah menghapus (pahala) amal-amal mereka.

47:29

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Atau apakah orang-orang yang ada penyakit dalam hatinya mengira bahwa Allah tidak akan menampakkan kedengkian mereka?

47:30

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Dan kalau Kami kehendaki, niscaya Kami tunjukkan mereka kepadamu sehingga kamu benar-benar dapat mengenal mereka dengan tanda-tandanya. Dan kamu benar-benar akan mengenal mereka dari kiasan-kiasan perkataan mereka dan Allah mengetahui perbuatan-perbuatan kamu.

47:31

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Dan sesungguhnya Kami benar-benar akan menguji kamu agar Kami mengetahui orang-orang yang berjihad dan bersabar di antara kamu, dan agar Kami menyatakan (baik buruknya) hal ihwalmu.

47:32

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Sesungguhnya orang-orang kafir dan (yang) menghalangi manusia dari jalan Allah serta memusuhi Rasul setelah petunjuk itu jelas bagi mereka, mereka tidak dapat memberi mudharat kepada Allah sedikitpun. Dan Allah akan menghapuskan (pahala) amal-amal mereka.

47:33

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Hai orang-orang yang beriman, taatilah Allah dan taatilah Rasul dan janganlah kamu merusakkan (pahala) amal-amalmu.

47:34

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Sesungguhnya orang-orang kafir dan (yang) menghalangi manusia dari jalan Allah kemudian mereka mati dalam keadaan kafir, maka sekali-kali Allah tidak akan memberi ampun kepada mereka.

47:35

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Janganlah kamu lemah dan minta damai padahal kamulah yang di atas dan Allah pun bersamamu dan Dia sekali-kali tidak akan mengurangi pahala amal-amalmu.

47:36

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Sesungguhnya kehidupan dunia hanyalah permainan dan senda gurau. Dan jika kamu beriman dan bertakwa, Allah akan memberikan pahala kepadamu dan Dia tidak akan meminta harta-hartamu.

47:37

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Jika Dia meminta harta kepadamu lalu mendesak kamu (supaya memberikan semuanya) niscaya kamu akan kikir dan Dia akan menampakkan kedengkianmu.

47:38

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Ingatlah, kamu ini orang-orang yang diajak untuk menafkahkan (hartamu) pada jalan Allah. Maka di antara kamu ada yang kikir, dan siapa yang kikir sesungguhnya dia hanyalah kikir terhadap dirinya sendiri. Dan Allah-lah yang Maha Kaya sedangkan kamulah orang-orang yang berkehendak (kepada-Nya); dan jika kamu berpaling niscaya Dia akan mengganti (kamu) dengan kaum yang lain; dan mereka tidak akan seperti kamu ini.