VERSES
59
PAGES
496-498

Name

The Surah takes its name from the word dukhan which occurs in verse 10.

Period of Revelation

Its period of revelation also could not be determined from any authentic tradition, but the internal evidence of the subject matter shows that this Surah too was sent down in the same period in which Surah Zukhruf and a few other earlier Surahs had been revealed. However, this Surah was sent down somewhat later. Its historical background is this: When the disbelievers of Makkah became more and more antagonistic in their attitude and conduct, the Holy Prophet prayed: O God, help me with a famine like the famine of Joseph. He thought that when the people would be afflicted with a calamity, they would remember God, their hearts would soften and they would accept the admonition. Allah granted his prayer, and the whole land was overtaken by such a terrible famine that the people were sorely distressed. At last, some of the Quraish chiefs among whom Hadrat Abdullah bin Masud has particularly mentioned the name of Abu Sufyan came to the Holy Prophet and requested him to pray to Allah to deliver his people from the calamity. On this occasion Allah sent down this Surah.

Subject Matter and Topics

The introduction to the address revealed on this occasion for the admonition and warning of the people of Makkah contained some important points, which are as follows:

  1. "You, O People of Makkah, are wrong in thinking that the Quran is being composed by Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace). This Book by itself bears the clear testimony that it is not the composition of a man but of Allah, Lord of the worlds."

  2. "You are making a wrong estimate of the worth of this Book. You think it is a calamity that has descended on you, whereas the Hour when Allah, out of sheer mercy, decided to send His Messenger and His Book to you was highly blessed."

  3. "You are foolishly involved in the misunderstanding that you will fight this Messenger and this Book and will win, whereas the fact is that the Messenger has been raised and the Book sent down in that particular Hour when Allah decides the destinies, and Allah's decisions are not so weak that they may be changed to a person's liking, nor are they based on ignorance and folly that there may be the likelihood of a mistake or error or weakness in them. They are rather the firm and unalterable decisions of the Ruler of the Universe, Who is All Hearing, All Knowing and All Wise. Therefore, they cannot be treated lightly.

  4. "You yourselves acknowledge that Allah alone is the Master and Lord of the earth and heavens and of everything in the Universe and also admit that life and death are only in His power, yet you insist on making others your deities, for which the only argument you offer is that that had been the practice since the time of your forefathers, whereas if a person has the conviction that Allah alone is the Master, Sustainer and Giver of life and death, he can never entertain the doubt that there can be other gods also beside Him, who can be worthy of worship. If your forefathers had committed this folly, there is no reason why you also should continue committing it blindly. As a matter of fact, their Lord too was only One God, Who is your Lord, and they also should have worshiped only Him, Whom you should worship."

  5. "The only demand of Allah's Providence and Mercifulness is not this that He should feed you, but also this that He should arrange guidance for you. For this very guidance He has sent His Messenger and His Book."

After this introduction, the question of the famine that was raging in Makkah has been discussed. As already mentioned, this famine had occurred on the Holy Prophet's prayer, and he had prayed for it so that when the calamity befell it would break the stubbornness of the disbelievers and then they would listen to the rebuke. It looked as if this expectation was being fulfilled to some extent, for some of the most stubborn enemies of the Truth, on account of the severities of the famine, had cried out: "O Lord, avert this torment from us and we will believe." At this, on the one hand, the Holy Prophet has been foretold :"These people will not learn any lesson from such calamities. When they have turned away from the Messenger, whose life, character, works and speech clearly show that he is Allah's true Messenger, how will a mere famine help remove their disbelief?" On the other, the unbelievers have been addressed, so as to say : "You lie when you say that you will believe as soon as the torment is removed from you. We shall just remove it to see how sincere you are in your promise. There is a graver disaster about to fall upon you. You need a much more crushing blow :minor misfortunes cannot set you right."

In this very connection, a reference has been made a little below to Pharaoh and his people, implying that those people also had met with precisely the same trial as the chiefs of the disbelieving Quraish are now afflicted. To them also a similar noble and honorable Messenger had come; they also had seen those express pointers and signs which clearly showed that he had been appointed by Allah; they also had gone on witnessing one sign after the other but they did not give up their stubbornness, till at last they made up their mind to put an end to the Messenger's life, and they met their doom, which has since become an object lesson for the people for ever.

After this the theme of the Hereafter has been taken up, which the disbelievers of Makkah vehemently denied. They said: "We have never seen anyone rising back to life after death. Raise our forefathers back to life if you are true in your claim about the life hereafter." In response to this, two arguments for the Hereafter have been presented briefly (1) That the denial of this creed has always proved destructive for the morals; and (2) that the universe is not a plaything of a thoughtless deity, but it is a wise system and no work of wisdom is ever vain or useless. Then the disbelievers demand to bring their forefathers back to life has been answered, thus : "This cannot be done every day to meet the demand of the individuals, but Allah has appointed a time when He will resurrect all mankind simultaneously and will subject them to accountability in His Court. If one has to protect oneself there, one should think about it here. For no one will be able to save himself there by his own power, nor by the power of any one else."

In connection with this Court of Allah, mention has been made of the fate of those who will be declared as culprits and of the rewards of those who will be declared as successful. The discourse has been concluded with this warning: "This Quran has been revealed in simple language in your own tongue so that you may understand it; yet if you do not understand it and insist on seeing your evil end, you may wait; Our Prophet too is waiting. Whatever is to happen, will happen at its own appointed time."

Source: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Quran

ﭑﭒﭓ

طَعَامُ الْأَثِيمِ

Transliteration

TaAAamu al-atheem

Muhsin Khan

Will be the food of the sinners,

Shakir

Is the food of the sinful

Yusuf Ali

Will be the food of the Sinful,-

Pickthall

The food of the sinner!

Sahih International

Is food for the sinful.

كَالْمُهْلِ يَغْلِي فِي الْبُطُونِ

Pickthall

Like molten brass, it seetheth in their bellies

Transliteration

Kalmuhli yaghlee fee albutoon

Sahih International

Like murky oil, it boils within bellies

Muhsin Khan

Like boiling oil, it will boil in the bellies,

Shakir

Like dregs of oil; it shall boil in (their) bellies,

Yusuf Ali

Like molten brass; it will boil in their insides.

كَغَلْيِ الْحَمِيمِ

Muhsin Khan

Like the boiling of scalding water.

Shakir

Like the boiling of hot water.

Yusuf Ali

Like the boiling of scalding water.

Sahih International

Like the boiling of scalding water.

Transliteration

Kaghalyi alhameem

Pickthall

As the seething of boiling water.

ﭿ

خُذُوهُ فَاعْتِلُوهُ إِلَىٰ سَوَاءِ الْجَحِيمِ

Yusuf Ali

(A voice will cry: "Seize ye him and drag him into the midst of the Blazing Fire!

Pickthall

(And it will be said): Take him and drag him to the midst of hell,

Sahih International

[It will be commanded], "Seize him and drag him into the midst of the Hellfire,

Muhsin Khan

(It will be said) "Seize him and drag him into the midst of blazing Fire,

Shakir

Seize him, then drag him down into the middle of the hell;

Transliteration

Khuthoohu faAAtiloohu ilasawa-i aljaheem

ثُمَّ صُبُّوا فَوْقَ رَأْسِهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْحَمِيمِ

Shakir

Then pour above his head of the torment of the boiling water:

Muhsin Khan

"Then pour over his head the torment of boiling water,

Transliteration

Thumma subboo fawqa ra/sihi min AAathabialhameem

Pickthall

Then pour upon his head the torment of boiling water.

Yusuf Ali

"Then pour over his head the Penalty of Boiling Water,

Sahih International

Then pour over his head from the torment of scalding water."

ذُقْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْكَرِيمُ

Yusuf Ali

"Taste thou (this)! Truly wast thou mighty, full of honour!

Pickthall

(Saying): Taste! Lo! thou wast forsooth the mighty, the noble!

Transliteration

Thuq innaka anta alAAazeezu alkareem

Muhsin Khan

"Taste you (this)! Verily, you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous!

Sahih International

[It will be said], "Taste! Indeed, you are the honored, the noble!

Shakir

Taste; you forsooth are the mighty, the honorable:

إِنَّ هَٰذَا مَا كُنتُم بِهِ تَمْتَرُونَ

Muhsin Khan

"Verily! This is that whereof you used to doubt!"

Shakir

Surely this is what you disputed about.

Pickthall

Lo! this is that whereof ye used to doubt.

Yusuf Ali

"Truly this is what ye used to doubt!"

Sahih International

Indeed, this is what you used to dispute."

Transliteration

Inna hatha ma kuntum bihitamtaroon

إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي مَقَامٍ أَمِينٍ

Yusuf Ali

As to the Righteous (they will be) in a position of Security,

Muhsin Khan

Verily! The Muttaqun (pious - see V.2:2), will be in place of Security (Paradise).

Pickthall

Lo! those who kept their duty will be in a place secured.

Sahih International

Indeed, the righteous will be in a secure place;

Shakir

Surely those who guard (against evil) are in a secure place,

Transliteration

Inna almuttaqeena fee maqamin ameen

فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَعُيُونٍ

Muhsin Khan

Among Gardens and Springs;

Transliteration

Fee jannatin waAAuyoon

Shakir

In gardens and springs;

Sahih International

Within gardens and springs,

Pickthall

Amid gardens and watersprings,

Yusuf Ali

Among Gardens and Springs;

يَلْبَسُونَ مِن سُندُسٍ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٍ مُّتَقَابِلِينَ

Sahih International

Wearing [garments of] fine silk and brocade, facing each other.

Pickthall

Attired in silk and silk embroidery, facing one another.

Yusuf Ali

Dressed in fine silk and in rich brocade, they will face each other;

Shakir

They shall wear of fine and thick silk, (sitting) face to face;

Transliteration

Yalbasoona min sundusin wa-istabraqin mutaqabileen

Muhsin Khan

Dressed in fine silk and (also) in thick silk, facing each other,

كَذَٰلِكَ وَزَوَّجْنَاهُم بِحُورٍ عِينٍ

Sahih International

Thus. And We will marry them to fair women with large, [beautiful] eyes.

Muhsin Khan

So (it will be), and We shall marry them to Houris (female fair ones) with wide, lovely eyes.

Transliteration

Kathalika wazawwajnahum bihoorinAAeen

Pickthall

Even so (it will be). And We shall wed them unto fair ones with wide, lovely eyes.

Shakir

Thus (shall it be), and We will wed them with Houris pure, beautiful ones.

Yusuf Ali

So; and We shall join them to fair women with beautiful, big, and lustrous eyes.

يَدْعُونَ فِيهَا بِكُلِّ فَاكِهَةٍ آمِنِينَ

Yusuf Ali

There can they call for every kind of fruit in peace and security;

Transliteration

YadAAoona feeha bikulli fakihatinamineen

Shakir

They shall call therein for every fruit in security;

Sahih International

They will call therein for every [kind of] fruit - safe and secure.

Muhsin Khan

They will call therein for every kind of fruit in peace and security;

Pickthall

They call therein for every fruit in safety.

لَا يَذُوقُونَ فِيهَا الْمَوْتَ إِلَّا الْمَوْتَةَ الْأُولَىٰ ۖ وَوَقَاهُمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ

Pickthall

They taste not death therein, save the first death. And He hath saved them from the doom of hell,

Sahih International

They will not taste death therein except the first death, and He will have protected them from the punishment of Hellfire

Shakir

They shall not taste therein death except the first death, and He will save them from the punishment of the hell,

Yusuf Ali

Nor will they there taste Death, except the first death; and He will preserve them from the Penalty of the Blazing Fire,-

Muhsin Khan

They will never taste death therein except the first death (of this world), and He will save them from the torment of the blazing Fire,

Transliteration

La yathooqoona feehaalmawta illa almawtata al-oola wawaqahum AAathabaaljaheem

فَضْلًا مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

Pickthall

A bounty from thy Lord. That is the supreme triumph.

Muhsin Khan

As a Bounty from your Lord! That will be the supreme success!

Transliteration

Fadlan min rabbika thalikahuwa alfawzu alAAatheem

Shakir

A grace from your Lord; this is the great achievement.

Yusuf Ali

As a Bounty from thy Lord! that will be the supreme achievement!

Sahih International

As bounty from your Lord. That is what is the great attainment.

فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرْنَاهُ بِلِسَانِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ

Yusuf Ali

Verily, We have made this (Qur'an) easy, in thy tongue, in order that they may give heed.

Muhsin Khan

Certainly, We have made this (Quran) easy in your tongue, in order that they may remember.

Sahih International

And indeed, We have eased the Qur'an in your tongue that they might be reminded.

Pickthall

And We have made (this Scripture) easy in thy language only that they may heed.

Shakir

So have We made it easy in your tongue that they may be mindful.

Transliteration

Fa-innama yassarnahu bilisanikalaAAallahum yatathakkaroon

فَارْتَقِبْ إِنَّهُم مُّرْتَقِبُونَ

Yusuf Ali

So wait thou and watch; for they (too) are waiting.

Pickthall

Wait then (O Muhammad). Lo! they (too) are waiting.

Sahih International

So watch, [O Muhammad]; indeed, they are watching [for your end].

Muhsin Khan

Wait then (O Muhammad SAW); Verily, they (too) are waiting.

Shakir

Therefore wait; surely they are waiting.

Transliteration

Fartaqib innahum murtaqiboon

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