VERSES
59
PAGES
496-498

Name

The Surah takes its name from the word dukhan which occurs in verse 10.

Period of Revelation

Its period of revelation also could not be determined from any authentic tradition, but the internal evidence of the subject matter shows that this Surah too was sent down in the same period in which Surah Zukhruf and a few other earlier Surahs had been revealed. However, this Surah was sent down somewhat later. Its historical background is this: When the disbelievers of Makkah became more and more antagonistic in their attitude and conduct, the Holy Prophet prayed: O God, help me with a famine like the famine of Joseph. He thought that when the people would be afflicted with a calamity, they would remember God, their hearts would soften and they would accept the admonition. Allah granted his prayer, and the whole land was overtaken by such a terrible famine that the people were sorely distressed. At last, some of the Quraish chiefs among whom Hadrat Abdullah bin Masud has particularly mentioned the name of Abu Sufyan came to the Holy Prophet and requested him to pray to Allah to deliver his people from the calamity. On this occasion Allah sent down this Surah.

Subject Matter and Topics

The introduction to the address revealed on this occasion for the admonition and warning of the people of Makkah contained some important points, which are as follows:

  1. "You, O People of Makkah, are wrong in thinking that the Quran is being composed by Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace). This Book by itself bears the clear testimony that it is not the composition of a man but of Allah, Lord of the worlds."

  2. "You are making a wrong estimate of the worth of this Book. You think it is a calamity that has descended on you, whereas the Hour when Allah, out of sheer mercy, decided to send His Messenger and His Book to you was highly blessed."

  3. "You are foolishly involved in the misunderstanding that you will fight this Messenger and this Book and will win, whereas the fact is that the Messenger has been raised and the Book sent down in that particular Hour when Allah decides the destinies, and Allah's decisions are not so weak that they may be changed to a person's liking, nor are they based on ignorance and folly that there may be the likelihood of a mistake or error or weakness in them. They are rather the firm and unalterable decisions of the Ruler of the Universe, Who is All Hearing, All Knowing and All Wise. Therefore, they cannot be treated lightly.

  4. "You yourselves acknowledge that Allah alone is the Master and Lord of the earth and heavens and of everything in the Universe and also admit that life and death are only in His power, yet you insist on making others your deities, for which the only argument you offer is that that had been the practice since the time of your forefathers, whereas if a person has the conviction that Allah alone is the Master, Sustainer and Giver of life and death, he can never entertain the doubt that there can be other gods also beside Him, who can be worthy of worship. If your forefathers had committed this folly, there is no reason why you also should continue committing it blindly. As a matter of fact, their Lord too was only One God, Who is your Lord, and they also should have worshiped only Him, Whom you should worship."

  5. "The only demand of Allah's Providence and Mercifulness is not this that He should feed you, but also this that He should arrange guidance for you. For this very guidance He has sent His Messenger and His Book."

After this introduction, the question of the famine that was raging in Makkah has been discussed. As already mentioned, this famine had occurred on the Holy Prophet's prayer, and he had prayed for it so that when the calamity befell it would break the stubbornness of the disbelievers and then they would listen to the rebuke. It looked as if this expectation was being fulfilled to some extent, for some of the most stubborn enemies of the Truth, on account of the severities of the famine, had cried out: "O Lord, avert this torment from us and we will believe." At this, on the one hand, the Holy Prophet has been foretold :"These people will not learn any lesson from such calamities. When they have turned away from the Messenger, whose life, character, works and speech clearly show that he is Allah's true Messenger, how will a mere famine help remove their disbelief?" On the other, the unbelievers have been addressed, so as to say : "You lie when you say that you will believe as soon as the torment is removed from you. We shall just remove it to see how sincere you are in your promise. There is a graver disaster about to fall upon you. You need a much more crushing blow :minor misfortunes cannot set you right."

In this very connection, a reference has been made a little below to Pharaoh and his people, implying that those people also had met with precisely the same trial as the chiefs of the disbelieving Quraish are now afflicted. To them also a similar noble and honorable Messenger had come; they also had seen those express pointers and signs which clearly showed that he had been appointed by Allah; they also had gone on witnessing one sign after the other but they did not give up their stubbornness, till at last they made up their mind to put an end to the Messenger's life, and they met their doom, which has since become an object lesson for the people for ever.

After this the theme of the Hereafter has been taken up, which the disbelievers of Makkah vehemently denied. They said: "We have never seen anyone rising back to life after death. Raise our forefathers back to life if you are true in your claim about the life hereafter." In response to this, two arguments for the Hereafter have been presented briefly (1) That the denial of this creed has always proved destructive for the morals; and (2) that the universe is not a plaything of a thoughtless deity, but it is a wise system and no work of wisdom is ever vain or useless. Then the disbelievers demand to bring their forefathers back to life has been answered, thus : "This cannot be done every day to meet the demand of the individuals, but Allah has appointed a time when He will resurrect all mankind simultaneously and will subject them to accountability in His Court. If one has to protect oneself there, one should think about it here. For no one will be able to save himself there by his own power, nor by the power of any one else."

In connection with this Court of Allah, mention has been made of the fate of those who will be declared as culprits and of the rewards of those who will be declared as successful. The discourse has been concluded with this warning: "This Quran has been revealed in simple language in your own tongue so that you may understand it; yet if you do not understand it and insist on seeing your evil end, you may wait; Our Prophet too is waiting. Whatever is to happen, will happen at its own appointed time."

Source: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Quran

ﭑﭒﭓ

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُنذِرِينَ

Urdu

کہ ہم نے اس کو مبارک رات میں نازل فرمایا ہم تو رستہ دکھانے والے ہیں

Sahih International

Indeed, We sent it down during a blessed night. Indeed, We were to warn [mankind].

فِيهَا يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ

Sahih International

On that night is made distinct every precise matter -

Urdu

اسی رات میں تمام حکمت کے کام فیصل کئے جاتے ہیں

أَمْرًا مِّنْ عِندِنَا ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُرْسِلِينَ

Urdu

(یعنی) ہمارے ہاں سے حکم ہو کر۔ بےشک ہم ہی (پیغمبر کو) بھیجتے ہیں

Sahih International

[Every] matter [proceeding] from Us. Indeed, We were to send [a messenger]

رَحْمَةً مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

Sahih International

As mercy from your Lord. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Knowing.

Urdu

(یہ) تمہارے پروردگار کی رحمت ہے۔ وہ تو سننے والا جاننے والا ہے

ﭿ

رَبِّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا ۖ إِن كُنتُم مُّوقِنِينَ

Urdu

آسمانوں اور زمین کا اور جو کچھ ان دونوں میں ہے سب کا مالک۔ بشرطیکہ تم لوگ یقین کرنے والے ہو

Sahih International

Lord of the heavens and the earth and that between them, if you would be certain.

لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۖ رَبُّكُمْ وَرَبُّ آبَائِكُمُ الْأَوَّلِينَ

Sahih International

There is no deity except Him; He gives life and causes death. [He is] your Lord and the Lord of your first forefathers.

Urdu

اس کے سوا کوئی معبود نہیں۔ (وہی) جِلاتا ہے اور (وہی) مارتا ہے۔ وہی تمہارا اور تمہارے باپ دادا کا پروردگار ہے

بَلْ هُمْ فِي شَكٍّ يَلْعَبُونَ

Sahih International

But they are in doubt, amusing themselves.

Urdu

لیکن یہ لوگ شک میں کھیل رہے ہیں

فَارْتَقِبْ يَوْمَ تَأْتِي السَّمَاءُ بِدُخَانٍ مُّبِينٍ

Urdu

تو اس دن کا انتظار کرو کہ آسمان سے صریح دھواں نکلے گا

Sahih International

Then watch for the Day when the sky will bring a visible smoke.

يَغْشَى النَّاسَ ۖ هَٰذَا عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

Urdu

جو لوگوں پر چھا جائے گا۔ یہ درد دینے والا عذاب ہے

Sahih International

Covering the people; this is a painful torment.

رَّبَّنَا اكْشِفْ عَنَّا الْعَذَابَ إِنَّا مُؤْمِنُونَ

Sahih International

[They will say], "Our Lord, remove from us the torment; indeed, we are believers."

Urdu

اے پروردگار ہم سے اس عذاب کو دور کر ہم ایمان لاتے ہیں

أَنَّىٰ لَهُمُ الذِّكْرَىٰ وَقَدْ جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مُّبِينٌ

Urdu

(اس وقت) ان کو نصیحت کہاں مفید ہوگی جب کہ ان کے پاس پیغمبر آچکے جو کھول کھول کر بیان کر دیتے ہیں

Sahih International

How will there be for them a reminder [at that time]? And there had come to them a clear Messenger.

ثُمَّ تَوَلَّوْا عَنْهُ وَقَالُوا مُعَلَّمٌ مَّجْنُونٌ

Urdu

پھر انہوں نے ان سے منہ پھیر لیا اور کہنے لگے (یہ تو) پڑھایا ہوا (اور) دیوانہ ہے

Sahih International

Then they turned away from him and said, "[He was] taught [and is] a madman."

إِنَّا كَاشِفُو الْعَذَابِ قَلِيلًا ۚ إِنَّكُمْ عَائِدُونَ

Sahih International

Indeed, We will remove the torment for a little. Indeed, you [disbelievers] will return [to disbelief].

Urdu

ہم تو تھوڑے دنوں عذاب ٹال دیتے ہیں (مگر) تم پھر کفر کرنے لگتے ہو

يَوْمَ نَبْطِشُ الْبَطْشَةَ الْكُبْرَىٰ إِنَّا مُنتَقِمُونَ

Urdu

جس دن ہم بڑی سخت پکڑ پکڑیں گے تو بےشک انتقام لے کر چھوڑیں گے

Sahih International

The Day We will strike with the greatest assault, indeed, We will take retribution.

وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَجَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ كَرِيمٌ

Sahih International

And We had already tried before them the people of Pharaoh, and there came to them a noble messenger,

Urdu

اور ان سے پہلے ہم نے قوم فرعون کی آزمائش کی اور ان کے پاس ایک عالی قدر پیغمبر آئے

أَنْ أَدُّوا إِلَيَّ عِبَادَ اللَّهِ ۖ إِنِّي لَكُمْ رَسُولٌ أَمِينٌ

Sahih International

[Saying], "Render to me the servants of Allah . Indeed, I am to you a trustworthy messenger,"

Urdu

(جنہوں نے) یہ (کہا) کہ خدا کے بندوں (یعنی بنی اسرائیل) کو میرے حوالے کردو میں تمہارا امانت دار پیغمبر ہوں

وَأَن لَّا تَعْلُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ ۖ إِنِّي آتِيكُم بِسُلْطَانٍ مُّبِينٍ

Urdu

اور خدا کے سامنے سرکشی نہ کرو۔ میں تمہارے پاس کھلی دلیل لے کر آیا ہوں

Sahih International

And [saying], "Be not haughty with Allah . Indeed, I have come to you with clear authority.

وَإِنِّي عُذْتُ بِرَبِّي وَرَبِّكُمْ أَن تَرْجُمُونِ

Urdu

اور اس (بات) سے کہ تم مجھے سنگسار کرو اپنے اور تمہارے پروردگار کی پناہ مانگتا ہوں

Sahih International

And indeed, I have sought refuge in my Lord and your Lord, lest you stone me.

وَإِن لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا لِي فَاعْتَزِلُونِ

Sahih International

But if you do not believe me, then leave me alone."

Urdu

اور اگر تم مجھ پر ایمان نہیں لاتے تو مجھ سے الگ ہو جاؤ

فَدَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنَّ هَٰؤُلَاءِ قَوْمٌ مُّجْرِمُونَ

Sahih International

And [finally] he called to his Lord that these were a criminal people.

Urdu

تب موسیٰ نے اپنے پروردگار سے دعا کی کہ یہ نافرمان لوگ ہیں

فَأَسْرِ بِعِبَادِي لَيْلًا إِنَّكُم مُّتَّبَعُونَ

Sahih International

[ Allah said], "Then set out with My servants by night. Indeed, you are to be pursued.

Urdu

(خدا نے فرمایا کہ) میرے بندوں کو راتوں رات لے کر چلے جاؤ اور (فرعونی) ضرور تمہارا تعاقب کریں گے

وَاتْرُكِ الْبَحْرَ رَهْوًا ۖ إِنَّهُمْ جُندٌ مُّغْرَقُونَ

Urdu

اور دریا سے (کہ) خشک (ہو رہا ہوگا) پار ہو جاؤ (تمہارے بعد) ان کا تمام لشکر ڈبو دیا جائے گا

Sahih International

And leave the sea in stillness. Indeed, they are an army to be drowned."

ﭿ

كَمْ تَرَكُوا مِن جَنَّاتٍ وَعُيُونٍ

Sahih International

How much they left behind of gardens and springs

Urdu

وہ لوگ بہت سے باغ اور چشمے چھوڑ گئے

وَزُرُوعٍ وَمَقَامٍ كَرِيمٍ

Sahih International

And crops and noble sites

Urdu

اور کھیتیاں اور نفیس مکان

وَنَعْمَةٍ كَانُوا فِيهَا فَاكِهِينَ

Sahih International

And comfort wherein they were amused.

Urdu

اور آرام کی چیزیں جن میں عیش کیا کرتے تھے

كَذَٰلِكَ ۖ وَأَوْرَثْنَاهَا قَوْمًا آخَرِينَ

Urdu

اسی طرح (ہوا) اور ہم نے دوسرے لوگوں کو ان چیزوں کا مالک بنا دیا

Sahih International

Thus. And We caused to inherit it another people.

فَمَا بَكَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّمَاءُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَا كَانُوا مُنظَرِينَ

Urdu

پھر ان پر نہ تو آسمان کو اور زمین کو رونا آیا اور نہ ان کو مہلت ہی دی گئی

Sahih International

And the heaven and earth wept not for them, nor were they reprieved.

وَلَقَدْ نَجَّيْنَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ الْمُهِينِ

Sahih International

And We certainly saved the Children of Israel from the humiliating torment -

Urdu

اور ہم نے بنی اسرائیل کو ذلت کے عذاب سے نجات دی

مِن فِرْعَوْنَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَالِيًا مِّنَ الْمُسْرِفِينَ

Sahih International

From Pharaoh. Indeed, he was a haughty one among the transgressors.

Urdu

(یعنی) فرعون سے۔ بےشک وہ سرکش (اور) حد سے نکلا ہوا تھا

وَلَقَدِ اخْتَرْنَاهُمْ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

Urdu

اور ہم نے بنی اسرائیل کو اہل عالم سے دانستہ منتخب کیا تھا

Sahih International

And We certainly chose them by knowledge over [all] the worlds.

وَآتَيْنَاهُم مِّنَ الْآيَاتِ مَا فِيهِ بَلَاءٌ مُّبِينٌ

Sahih International

And We gave them of signs that in which there was a clear trial.

Urdu

اور ان کو ایسی نشانیاں دی تھیں جن میں صریح آزمائش تھی

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