VERSES
286
PAGES
2-49

Name

Why the name Al-Baqarah?

Al-Baqarah (the Cow) has been so named from the story of the Cow occurring in this Surah (vv. 67-73). It has not, however, been used as a title to indicate the subject of the Surah. It will, therefore, be as wrong to translate the name Al-Baqarah into "The Cow" or "The Heifer" as to translate any English name, say Mr. Baker, Mr. Rice, Mr. Wolf etc., into their equivalents in other languages or vice versa, because this would imply that the Surah dealt with the subject of "The Cow". Many more Surahs of the Quran have been named in the same way because no comprehensive words exist in Arabic (in spite of its richness) to denote the wide scope of the subject discussed in them. As a matter of fact all human languages suffer from the same limitation.

Sequence

Though it is a Madani Surah, it follows naturally a Makki Surah Al- Fatihah, which ended with the prayer: "Show us the straight way." It begins with the answer to that prayer, "This is the Book (that)...is guidance..."

The greater part of Al-Baqarah was revealed during the first two years of the Holy Prophet's life at Al-Madinah. The smaller part which was revealed at a later period has been included in this Surah because its contents are closely related to those dealt with in this Surah. For instance, the verses prohibiting interest were revealed during the last period of the Holy prophet's life but have been inserted in this Surah. For the same reason, the last verses (284-286) of this Surah which were revealed at Makkah before the migration of the Holy Prophet to AI-Madinah have also been included in it.

Historical Background

In order to understand the meaning of this Surah, we should know its historical background:

  1. At Makkah the Quran generally addressed the mushrik Quraish who were ignorant of Islam, but at Al-Madinah it was also concerned with the Jews who were acquainted with the creed of the Unity of Allah, Prophethood, Revelation, the Hereafter and angels. They also professed to believe in the law which was revealed by Allah to their Prophet Moses (Allah's peace be upon him), and in principle, their way was the same (Islam) that was being taught by Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him). But they had strayed away from it during the centuries of degeneration and had adopted many un-Islamic creeds, rites and customs of which there was no mention and for which there was no sanction in the Torah. Not only this : they had tampered with the Torah by inserting their own explanations and interpretations into its text. They had distorted even that part of the Word of God which had remained intact in their Scriptures and taken out of it the real spirit of true religion and were now clinging to a lifeless frame of rituals. Consequently their beliefs, their morals and their conduct had gone to the lowest depths of degeneration. The pity is that they were not only satisfied with their condition but loved to cling to it. Besides this, they had no intention or inclination to accept any kind of reform. So they became bitter enemies of those who came to teach them the Right Way and did their worst to defeat every such effort. Though they were originally Muslims, they had swerved from the real Islam and made innovations and alterations in it and had fallen victims to hair splitting and sectarianism. They had forgotten and forsaken Allah and begun to serve mammon. So much so that they had even given up their original name "Muslim" and adopted the name "Jew" instead, and made religion the sole monopoly of the children of Israel.

    This was their religious condition when the Holy Prophet went to Al-Madinah and invited the Jews to the true religion. That is why more than one third of this Surah has been addressed to the children of Israel. A critical review of their history, their moral degeneration and their religious perversions has been made; side by side with this the high standard of morality and the fundamental principles of the pure religion have been put forward in order to bring out clearly the nature of the degeneration of the community of a prophet when it goes astray and to draw clear lines of demarcation between real piety and formalism, and the essentials and non-essentials of the true religion.

  2. At Makkah Islam was mainly concerned with the propagation of its fundamental principles and the moral training of its followers. But after the migration of the Holy Prophet to Al-Madinah, where Muslims had come to settle from all over Arabia and where a tiny Islamic State had been set up with the help of the Ansar (local supporters), naturally the Quran had to turn its attention to the social, cultural, economic, political and legal problems as well. This accounts for the difference between the themes of the surahs revealed at Makkah and those at Al-Madinah. Accordingly about half of this Surah deals with those principles and regulations which are essential for the integration and solidarity of a community and for the solution of its problems.

  3. After the migration to Al-Madinah, the struggle between Islam and un-Islam had also entered a new phase. Before this the Believers, who propagated Islam among their own clans and tribes, had to face its opponents at their own risk. But the conditions had changed at Al-Madinah, where Muslims from all parts of Arabia had come and settled as one community, and had established an independent city state. Here it became a struggle for the' survival of the Community itself, for the whole of non- Muslim Arabia was bent upon and united in crushing it totally. Hence the following instructions, upon which depended not only its success but its very survival, were revealed in this Surah :-

    1. The Community should work with the utmost zeal to propagate its ideology and win over to its side the greatest possible number of people.

  4. It should so expose its opponents as to leave no room for doubt in the mind of any sensible person that they were adhering to an absolutely wrong position.

  5. It should infuse in it's members (the majority of whom were homeless and indigent and surrounded on all sides by enemies) that courage and fortitude which is so indispensable to their very existence in the adverse circumstances in which they were struggling and to prepare them to face these boldly.

  6. It should also keep them ready and prepared to meet any armed menace, which might come from any side to suppress and crush their ideology, and to oppose it tooth and nail without minding the overwhelming numerical strength and the material resources of its enemies

  7. It should also create in them that courage which is needed for the eradication of evil ways and for the establishment of the Islamic Way instead.

    That is why Allah has revealed in this Surah such instructions as may help achieve all the above mentioned objects.

  8. During this period, a new type of "Muslims," munafiqin (hypocrites), had begun to appear. Though signs of duplicity had been noticed during the last days at Makkah, they took a different shape at Al-Madinah. At Makkah there were some people who professed Islam to be true but were not prepared to abide by the consequences of this profession and to sacrifice their worldly interests and relations and bear the afflictions which inevitably follow the acceptance of this creed. But at Al-Madinah different kinds of munafiqin (hypocrites) began to appear. There were some who had entered the Islamic fold merely to harm it from within. There were others who were surrounded by Muslims and, therefore, had become "Muslims" to safeguard their worldly interests. They, therefore, continued to have relations with the enemies so that if the latter became successful, their interests should remain secure. There were still others who had no strong conviction of the truth of Islam but had embraced it along with their clans. Lastly, there were those who were intellectually convinced of the truth of Islam but did not have enough moral courage to give up their former traditions, superstitions and personal ambitions and live up to the Islamic moral standards and make sacrifice in its way.

    At the time of the revelation of Al-Baqarah, all sorts of hypocrites had begun to appear. Allah has, therefore, briefly pointed out their characteristics here. Afterwards when their evil characteristics and mischievous deeds became manifest, Allah sent detailed instructions about them.

Theme: Guidance

This Surah is an invitation to the Divine Guidance and all the stories, incidents etc., revolve round this central theme. As this Surah has particularly been addressed to the Jews, many historical events have been cited from their own traditions to admonish and advise them that their own good lies in accepting the Guidance revealed to the Holy Prophet. They should, therefore, be the first to accept it because it was basically]y the same that was revealed to Prophet Moses (Allah's peace be upon him).

Topics and their Interconnection

These introductory verses declare the Quran to be the Book of Guidance : enunciate the articles of the Faith -- belief in Allah, Prophethood and Life-after-death; divide mankind into three main groups with regard to its acceptance or rejection -- Believers, disbelievers and hypocrites. 1 - 20

Allah invites mankind to accept the Guidance voluntarily and to submit to Him, the Lord and the Creator of the Universe and to believe in the Quran, His Guidance, and in the Life-after-death. 21 - 29

The story of the appointment of Adam as Allah's Vicegerent on Earth, of his life in the Garden, of his falling a prey to the temptations of Satan, of his repentance and its acceptance, has been related to show to mankind (Adam's offspring), that the only right thing for them is to accept and follow the Guidance. This story also shows that the Guidance of Islam is the same that was given to Adam and that it is the original religion of mankind. 30 - 39

In this portion invitation to the Guidance has particularly been extended to the children of Israel and their past and present attitude has been criticized to show that the cause of their degradation was their deviation from the Guidance. 40 - 120

The Jews have been exhorted to follow Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) who had come with the same Guidance and who was a descendant and follower of Prophet Abraham whom they highly honoured as their ancestor, and professed to follow as a prophet. The story of the building of the Ka`abah by him has been mentioned because it was going to be made the qiblah of the Muslim Community. 121 - 141

In this portion, the declaration of the change of qiblah from the Temple (Jerusalem) to the Ka`abah (Makkah) has been made as a symbol of the change of leadership from the children of Israel to the Muslim Community, which has also been fore-warned to guard against those transgressions against the Guidance that had led to the deposition of the Jews. 142 - 152

In this portion practical measures have been prescribed to enable the Muslims to discharge the heavy responsibilities of the leadership that had been entrusted to them for the promulgation of Guidance. Salat, Fast, Zakat, Haj and Jihad have been prescribed for the moral training of the Ummat. The Believers have been exhorted to obey authority, to be just, to fulfill pledges, to observe treaties, to spend wealth etc., in the way of Allah. Laws, rules and regulations have been laid down for their organization, cohesion and conduct of day-to-day life and for the solution of social, economic, political and international problems; on the other hand, drinking, gambling, lending money on interest etc., have been prohibited to keep the Ummat safe from disintegration. In between these, the basic articles of the Faith have been reiterated at suitable places, for these alone can enable and support one to stick to the Guidance. 153 - 251

These verses serve as an introduction to the prohibition of lending money on interest. The true conception of Allah, Revelation and Life-after-death has been emphasized to keep alive the sense of accountability. The stories of Prophet Abraham (Allah's peace be upon him) and of the one who woke up after a sleep of hundred years have been related to show that Allah is All-Powerful and is able to raise the dead and call them to account. The Believers, therefore, should keep this fact in view and refrain from taking interest on money. 252 - 260

The theme of 153 - 251 has been resumed and the Believers have been exhorted to spend in the way of Allah in order to please Him alone. In contrast to this, they have been warned against the evils of lending money on interest. Instructions have also been given for the honest conduct of day-to-day business transactions. 261 - 283

The basic articles of the Faith have been recapitulated here at the end of the Surah, just as they were enunciated at its beginning. Then the Surah ends with a prayer which the Muslim Community needed very much at that time when they were encountering untold hardships in the propagation of the Guidance. 284 - 286

Source: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Quran

ﭑﭒﭓ

2:177

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Transliteration

Laysa albirra an tuwalloo wujoohakum qibalaalmashriqi walmaghribi walakinna albirra man amanabillahi walyawmi al-akhiri walmala-ikatiwalkitabi wannabiyyeena waataalmala AAala hubbihi thawee alqurbawalyatama walmasakeena wabnaalssabeeli wassa-ileena wafee arriqabiwaaqama assalata waataazzakata walmoofoona biAAahdihim ithaAAahadoo wassabireena fee alba/sa-iwaddarra-i waheena alba/si ola-ikaallatheena sadaqoo waola-ika humualmuttaqoon

Pickthall

It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the East and the West; but righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Scripture and the prophets; and giveth wealth, for love of Him, to kinsfolk and to orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and to those who ask, and to set slaves free; and observeth proper worship and payeth the poor-due. And those who keep their treaty when they make one, and the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such are they who are sincere. Such are the Allah-fearing.

Urdu

نیکی یہی نہیں کہ تم مشرق یا مغرب کو (قبلہ سمجھ کر ان) کی طرف منہ کرلو بلکہ نیکی یہ ہے کہ لوگ خدا پر اور روز آخرت پر اور فرشتوں پر اور (خدا کی) کتاب پر اور پیغمبروں پر ایمان لائیں۔ اور مال باوجود عزیز رکھنے کے رشتہ داروں اور یتیموں اور محتاجوں اور مسافروں اور مانگنے والوں کو دیں اور گردنوں (کے چھڑانے) میں (خرچ کریں) اور نماز پڑھیں اور زکوٰة دیں۔ اور جب عہد کرلیں تو اس کو پورا کریں۔ اور سختی اور تکلیف میں اور (معرکہ) کارزار کے وقت ثابت قدم رہیں۔ یہی لوگ ہیں جو (ایمان میں) سچے ہیں اور یہی ہیں جو (خدا سے) ڈرنے والے ہیں

2:178

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Transliteration

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanookutiba AAalaykumu alqisasu fee alqatla alhurrubilhurri walAAabdu bilAAabdi walonthabilontha faman AAufiya lahu min akheehi shay-on fattibaAAunbilmaAAroofi waadaon ilayhi bi-ihsaninthalika takhfeefun min rabbikum warahmatun famaniiAAtada baAAda thalika falahu AAathabunaleem

Urdu

مومنو! تم کو مقتولوں کے بارےمیں قصاص (یعنی خون کے بدلے خون) کا حکم دیا جاتا ہے (اس طرح پر کہ)آزاد کے بدلے آزاد (مارا جائے) اور غلام کے بدلے غلام اور عورت کے بدلے عورت اور قاتل کو اس کے (مقتول) بھائی (کے قصاص میں) سے کچھ معاف کردیا جائے تو (وارث مقتول) کو پسندیدہ طریق سے (قرار داد کی) پیروی (یعنی مطالبہٴ خون بہا) کرنا اور (قاتل کو) خوش خوئی کے ساتھ ادا کرنا چاہیئے یہ پروردگار کی طرف سے تمہارے لئے آسانی اور مہربانی ہے جو اس کے بعد زیادتی کرے اس کے لئے دکھ کا عذاب ہے

Pickthall

O ye who believe! Retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the murdered; the freeman for the freeman, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. And for him who is forgiven somewhat by his (injured) brother, prosecution according to usage and payment unto him in kindness. This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord. He who transgresseth after this will have a painful doom.

2:179

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Urdu

اور اے اہل عقل (حکم) قصاص میں (تمہاری) زندگانی ہے کہ تم (قتل و خونریزی سے) بچو

Pickthall

And there is life for you in retaliation, O men of understanding, that ye may ward off (evil).

Transliteration

Walakum fee alqisasi hayatunya olee al-albabi laAAallakum tattaqoon

2:180

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Pickthall

It is prescribed for you, when death approacheth one of you, if he leave wealth, that he bequeath unto parents and near relatives in kindness. (This is) a duty for all those who ward off (evil).

Transliteration

Kutiba AAalaykum itha hadaraahadakumu almawtu in taraka khayran alwasiyyatulilwalidayni wal-aqrabeena bilmaAAroofi haqqanAAala almuttaqeen

Urdu

تم پر فرض کیا جاتا ہے کہ جب تم میں سے کسی کو موت کا وقت آجائے تو اگر وہ کچھ مال چھوڑ جانے والا ہو تو ماں با پ اور رشتہ داروں کے لئے دستور کے مطابق وصیت کرجائے (خدا سے) ڈر نے والوں پر یہ ایک حق ہے

2:181

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Urdu

جو شخص وصیت کو سننے کے بعد بدل ڈالے تو اس (کے بدلنے) کا گناہ انہیں لوگوں پر ہے جو اس کو بدلیں۔ اور بےشک خدا سنتا جانتا ہے

Pickthall

And whoso changeth (the will) after he hath heard it - the sin thereof is only upon those who change it. Lo! Allah is Hearer, Knower.

Transliteration

Faman baddalahu baAAda ma samiAAahufa-innama ithmuhu AAala allatheenayubaddiloonahu inna Allaha sameeAAun AAaleem

2:182

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Transliteration

Faman khafa min moosinjanafan aw ithman faaslaha baynahum falaithma AAalayhi inna Allaha ghafoorun raheem

Pickthall

But he who feareth from a testator some unjust or sinful clause, and maketh peace between the parties, (it shall be) no sin for him. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Urdu

اگر کسی کو وصیت کرنے والے کی طرف سے (کسی وارث کی) طرفداری یا حق تلفی کا اندیشہ ہو تو اگر وہ (وصیت کو بدل کر) وارثوں میں صلح کرادے تو اس پر کچھ گناہ نہیں۔ بےشک خدا بخشنے والا (اور) رحم والا ہے

2:183

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Urdu

مومنو! تم پر روزے فرض کئے گئے ہیں۔ جس طرح تم سے پہلے لوگوں پر فرض کئے گئے تھے تاکہ تم پرہیزگار بنو

Pickthall

O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, even as it was prescribed for those before you, that ye may ward off (evil);

Transliteration

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanookutiba AAalaykumu assiyamu kamakutiba AAala allatheena min qablikum laAAallakumtattaqoon

2:184

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Pickthall

(Fast) a certain number of days; and (for) him who is sick among you, or on a journey, (the same) number of other days; and for those who can afford it there is a ransom: the feeding of a man in need - but whoso doeth good of his own accord, it is better for him: and that ye fast is better for you if ye did but know -

Urdu

(روزوں کے دن) گنتی کے چند روز ہیں تو جو شخص تم میں سے بیمار ہو یا سفر میں ہو تو دوسرے دنوں میں روزوں کا شمار پورا کرلے اور جو لوگ روزہ رکھنے کی طاقت رکھیں (لیکن رکھیں نہیں) وہ روزے کے بدلے محتاج کو کھانا کھلا دیں اور جو کوئی شوق سے نیکی کرے تو اس کے حق میں زیادہ اچھا ہے۔ اور اگر سمجھو تو روزہ رکھنا ہی تمہارے حق میں بہتر ہے

Transliteration

Ayyaman maAAdoodatin faman kanaminkum mareedan aw AAala safarin faAAiddatun minayyamin okhara waAAala allatheena yuteeqoonahufidyatun taAAamu miskeenin faman tatawwaAAakhayran fahuwa khayrun lahu waan tasoomoo khayrun lakum inkuntum taAAlamoon

2:185

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Pickthall

The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion (of right and wrong). And whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, (let him fast the same) number of other days. Allah desireth for you ease; He desireth not hardship for you; and (He desireth) that ye should complete the period, and that ye should magnify Allah for having guided you, and that peradventure ye may be thankful.

Urdu

(روزوں کا مہینہ) رمضان کا مہینہ (ہے) جس میں قرآن (اول اول) نازل ہوا جو لوگوں کا رہنما ہے اور (جس میں) ہدایت کی کھلی نشانیاں ہیں اور (جو حق و باطل کو) الگ الگ کرنے والا ہے تو جو کوئی تم میں سے اس مہینے میں موجود ہو چاہیئے کہ پورے مہینے کے روزے رکھے اور جو بیمار ہو یا سفر میں ہو تو دوسرے دنوں میں (رکھ کر) ان کا شمار پورا کرلے۔ خدا تمہارے حق میں آسانی چاہتا ہے اور سختی نہیں چاہتا اور (یہ آسانی کا حکم) اس لئے (دیا گیا ہے) کہ تم روزوں کا شمار پورا کرلو اور اس احسان کے بدلے کہ خدا نے تم کو ہدایت بخشی ہے تم اس کو بزرگی سے یاد کر واور اس کا شکر کرو

Transliteration

Shahru ramadana allatheeonzila feehi alqur-anu hudan linnasiwabayyinatin mina alhuda walfurqanifaman shahida minkumu ashshahra falyasumhu waman kanamareedan aw AAala safarin faAAiddatun min ayyaminokhara yureedu Allahu bikumu alyusra wala yureedubikumu alAAusra walitukmiloo alAAiddata walitukabbiroo AllahaAAala ma hadakum walaAAallakum tashkuroon

2:186

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Urdu

اور (اے پیغمبر) جب تم سے میرے بندے میرے بارے میں دریافت کریں تو (کہہ دو کہ) میں تو (تمہارے) پاس ہوں جب کوئی پکارنے والا مجھے پکارتا ہے تو میں اس کی دعا قبول کرتا ہوں تو ان کو چاہیئے کہ میرے حکموں کو مانیں اور مجھ پر ایمان لائیں تاکہ نیک رستہ پائیں

Transliteration

Wa-itha saalaka AAibadeeAAannee fa-innee qareebun ojeebu daAAwata addaAAiitha daAAani falyastajeeboo lee walyu/minoo beelaAAallahum yarshudoon

Pickthall

And when My servants question thee concerning Me, then surely I am nigh. I answer the prayer of the suppliant when he crieth unto Me. So let them hear My call and let them trust in Me, in order that they may be led aright.

2:187

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Urdu

روزوں کی راتوں میں تمہارے لئے اپنی عورتوں کے پاس جانا کردیا گیا ہے وہ تمہاری پوشاک ہیں اور تم ان کی پوشاک ہو خدا کو معلوم ہے کہ تم (ان کے پاس جانے سے) اپنے حق میں خیانت کرتے تھے سو اس نے تم پر مہربانی کی اور تمہاری حرکات سےدرگزرفرمائی۔اب (تم کو اختیار ہے کہ) ان سے مباشرت کرو۔ اور خدا نے جو چیز تمہارے لئے لکھ رکھی ہے (یعنی اولاد) اس کو (خدا سے) طلب کرو اور کھاؤ پیو یہاں تک کہ صبح کی سفید دھاری (رات کی) سیاہ دھاری سے الگ نظر آنے لگے۔ پھر روزہ (رکھ کر) رات تک پورا کرو اور جب تم مسجدوں میں اعتکاف بیٹھے ہو تو ان سے مباشرت نہ کرو۔ یہ خدا کی حدیں ہیں ان کے پاس نہ جانا۔ اسی طرح خدا اپنی آیتیں لوگوں کے (سمجھانے کے) لئے کھول کھول کر بیان فرماتا ہے تاکہ وہ پرہیزگار بنیں

Pickthall

It is made lawful for you to go in unto your wives on the night of the fast. They are raiment for you and ye are raiment for them. Allah is Aware that ye were deceiving yourselves in this respect and He hath turned in mercy toward you and relieved you. So hold intercourse with them and seek that which Allah hath ordained for you, and eat and drink until the white thread becometh distinct to you from the black thread of the dawn. Then strictly observe the fast till nightfall and touch them not, but be at your devotions in the mosques. These are the limits imposed by Allah, so approach them not. Thus Allah expoundeth His revelation to mankind that they may ward off (evil).

Transliteration

Ohilla lakum laylata assiyamiarrafathu ila nisa-ikum hunna libasunlakum waantum libasun lahunna AAalima Allahuannakum kuntum takhtanoona anfusakum fatabaAAalaykum waAAafa AAankum fal-ana bashiroohunnawabtaghoo ma kataba Allahu lakum wakuloo washraboohatta yatabayyana lakumu alkhaytu al-abyadumina alkhayti al-aswadi mina alfajri thumma atimmoo assiyamaila allayli wala tubashiroohunna waantum AAakifoonafee almasajidi tilka hudoodu Allahi falataqrabooha kathalika yubayyinu Allahu ayatihilinnasi laAAallahum yattaqoon

2:188

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Pickthall

And eat not up your property among yourselves in vanity, nor seek by it to gain the hearing of the judges that ye may knowingly devour a portion of the property of others wrongfully.

Transliteration

Wala ta/kuloo amwalakumbaynakum bilbatili watudloo biha ilaalhukkami lita/kuloo fareeqan min amwali annasibil-ithmi waantum taAAlamoon

Urdu

اور ایک دوسرے کا مال ناحق نہ کھاؤ اورنہ اس کو (رشوةً) حاکموں کے پاس پہنچاؤ تاکہ لوگوں کے مال کا کچھ حصہ ناجائز طور پر کھا جاؤ اور (اسے) تم جانتے بھی ہو

2:189

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Transliteration

Yas-aloonaka AAani al-ahillati qul hiya mawaqeetulinnasi walhajji walaysa albirrubi-an ta/too albuyoota min thuhooriha walakinnaalbirra mani ittaqa wa/too albuyoota min abwabihawattaqoo Allaha laAAallakum tuflihoon

Urdu

(اے محمدﷺ) لوگ تم سے نئے چاند کے بارے میں دریافت کرتے ہیں (کہ گھٹتا بڑھتا کیوں ہے) کہہ دو کہ وہ لوگوں کے (کاموں کی میعادیں) اور حج کے وقت معلوم ہونے کا ذریعہ ہے اور نیکی اس بات میں نہیں کہ (احرام کی حالت میں) گھروں میں ان کے پچھواڑے کی طرف سے آؤ۔ بلکہ نیکوکار وہ ہے جو پرہیز گار ہو اور گھروں میں ان کے دروازوں سے آیا کرو اور خدا سے ڈرتے رہو تاکہ نجات پاؤ

Pickthall

They ask thee, (O Muhammad), of new moons, say: They are fixed seasons for mankind and for the pilgrimage. It is not righteousness that ye go to houses by the backs thereof (as do the idolaters at certain seasons), but the righteous man is he who wardeth off (evil). So go to houses by the gates thereof, and observe your duty to Allah, that ye may be successful.

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