VERSES
56
PAGES
575-577

Name

The Surah takes its name from the word al-muddaththir in the first verse. This also is only a name, not a title of its subject matter.

Period of Revelation

The first seven verses of this Surah belong to the earliest period at Makkah. Even according to some traditions which have been related in Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Musnad Ahmad, etc., on the authority of Hadrat Jabir bin Abdullah, these are the very earliest verses of the Qur'an to be revealed to the Holy Prophet (upon whoa be peace). But the Muslim Ummah almost unanimously agreed that the earliest Revelation to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) consisted of the first five verses of Surah Al-Alaq(XCVI) However, what is established by authentic traditions is that after this first Revelation, no Revelation came down to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) for quite some time. Then, when it was resumed, it started with theme verses of Surah Al- Muddaththir. Imam Zuhri has given the following details of it:

"Revelation to the Holy Prophet remained suspended for quite some time, and it was such a period of deep grief and distress for him that he started going early to the tops of the mountains to throw himself down from them. But whenever he stood on the edge of a peak, the Angel Gabriel would appear and tell him that he was Allah's Prophet. This would console him and restore to him full peace of mind." (Ibn Jarir).

After this Imam Zuhri relates the following tradition on the authority of Hadrat Jabir bin Abdullah:

"The Ho]y Messenger of Allah describing the period of falrat al-wahi (break in revelation) said: One day when I was passing on the way, I suddenly heard a call from heaven. I raised my head and saw that the same Angel who had visited me in the Cave of Hira was sitting on a throne between heaven and earth. This struck terror in my heart, and reaching home quickly, I said: 'Cover me up, cover me up'. So the people of the house covered me up with a quilt (or blanket). At that time Allah sent down the Revelation: Ya ayyuhal-Muddaththiru... From then on revelation became intense and continuous." (Bukhari, Muslim Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Jarir).

The rest of the Surah (vv. 8-56) was revealed when the first Hajj season came after public preaching of Islam had begun in Makkah. This has been fully well described in the Sirah by Ibn Hisham and we shall cite it below.

Theme and Subject Matter

As has been explained above, the earliest Revelation to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) consisted of the first five verses of Surah Al-Alaq, in which it had been Said: "Read (O Prophet), in the name of your Lord, Who created: created man from a clot of congealed blood. Read: and your Lord is Most Generous, Who taught knowledge by the pen, taught man what he did not know."

This was the first experience of Revelation met with suddenly by the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace). in this message it was not told what great mission he had been entrusted with and what duties he had to perk form in future. He was only initiated into it and then left alone for a time so that the great strain this experience had caused should pass away and he should mentally become prepared to receive the Revelation and perform the prophetic mission in the future. After this intermission when Revelation Was resumed, the first seven verses of this Surah Were revealed:In these he Was for the first time commanded to arise and warn the people of the consequences of the way of life they were following and to proclaim the greatness of God in the world where others were being magnified without any right. Along with that he was given this instruction: The demand of the Unique mission that you have to perform, now is that your life should be pure in every respect and you should carry out the duty of reforming your people sincerely irrespective of any worldly gain. Then, in the last sentence, he was exhorted to endure with patience, for the sake of his Lord, all the hardships and troubles that he might have to face while performing his mission.

In the implementation of this Divine Command when the Holy Messenger of Allah began to preach Islam and recite the Qur'anic Surahs revealed successively, the people of Makkah felt alarmed, and it provoked a great storm of opposition and hostility. A few months passed in this state until the Hajj season approached. The people of Makkah feared that if Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) started visiting the caravans of the pilgrims coming from all over Arabia at their halting places and reciting the spell binding and unique Revelations of the Qur'an in their assemblies on the occasion of Hajj, his message would reach every part of Arabia and influence countless people. Therefore, the Quraish chiefs held a conference and settled that they would start a propaganda campaign against the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) among the pilgrims as soon as they arrived.

After they had agreed on this, Walid bin al-Mughirah said to the assembled people: "If you said contradictory things about Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings), we all would lose our trust among the people. Therefore, let us agree upon one opinion, which we should all say without dispute.

Some people said that they would call Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) a soothsayer. Walid said: “No, by God, be is not a soothsayer. We have seen the soothsayers: what they murmur and what they utter has no remote resemblance with the Qur'an.”

Some other people said: “Then we say he is possessed.” Walid said: He is not a possessed one: we have seen mad and insane people; the way one talks disjointedly and behaves foolishly in that state is known to all: who would believe that what Muhammad (upon whom be peace) presented was the incoherent speech of a madman?”

The people said: “Then we say he is a poet.” Walid said: “No, he is not a poet, for we know poetry in all its forms, and what he presents conforms to no form of it.”

The people said: “Then he is a sorcerer.” Walid said: “He is no sorcerer either: we have seen sorcerers and we also know what methods they adopt for their sorcery. This also does not apply to Muhammad.”

Then he said: "Whichever of these things you said about Muhammad, it would be known to be a false accusation. By God, his speech is sweet, his root is deep and his branches are fruitful.” At this Abu Jahl urging on Walid said: “Your people will never be pleased with you unless you say something about Muhammad.” He said: “Let me think over it awhile.”

Then, after prolonged thought and consideration, he said: “The nearest thing to the truth is that you tell the Arabs that he is a sorcerer, who has brought a message by which he separates a man from his father; and from his brother, and from his wife and children, and from his family.” They all agreed on what Walid had proposed.

Then, according to a scheme the men of Quraish spread among the pilgrims in the Hajj season and they warned everyone they met of the sorcery of Muhammad (upon whom be peace) and of his stirring up divisions in the families by it." But the result was that by their this plan the Quraish chiefs themselves made the name of the Holy Messenger known throughout Arabia. (Ibn Hisham, pp. 288-289. That Walid had made this proposal on the insistence of Abu Jahl has been related by Ibn Jarir in his Tafsir on the authority of Ikrimah).

This same event has been reviewed and commented upon in the second section of this Surah. The sequence of its contents is as follows:

In vv. 8-10 the deniers of Truth have been warned, saying: "You will see the evil result of what you are doing today on the Resurrection Day."

In vv. 11-26, without naming Walid bin al-Mughirah, it has been told how Allah had blessed him and how inimical he proved to be to true Faith. In this connection, his mental conflict has been portrayed, telling that, on the one hand, he was fully convinced of the truth of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) and the Qur'an, but, on the other, he did not want to risk his leadership and position among his people. Therefore, not only he did not believe himself but after a long-drawn-out conflict with his conscience he also came out with the proposal that in order to restrain the people from believing the Qur'an should be branded as magic. After exposing his evil nature, it has been said: "Notwithstanding such evil inclinations and misdeeds, this person desires that he should be further blessed, whereas he has now become worthy of Hell, and never of further blessings."

In vv. 27-48, the dreadfulness of Hell has been depicted and it has been explained as to people of what character and morals really deserve it.

In vv. 49-53, the root cause of the disbelievers' aversion has been pointed out, saying: "Since they are fearless of the Hereafter, and look upon this worldly life as an end in itself, they flee from the Qur'an as though they were wild asses fleeing away from the lion: therefore, they propose unreasonable conditions for believing, whereas even if each and every condition of theirs was fulfilled, they could not advance even an inch on the way of Faith with their denial of the Hereafter."

In conclusion, it has been explicitly stated: Allah does not stand in need of anybody's faith that He may fulfill his conditions. The Qur'an is an admonition that has been presented before the people openly; now whoever wills may accept it. Allah has a right that the people should fear His disobedience and He alone has the power to forgive the one who adopts piety and an attitude of God consciousness even though one may have committed many acts of disobedience in the past.

Source: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Quran

ﭑﭒﭓ

عَنِ الْمُجْرِمِينَ

Yusuf Ali

And (ask) of the Sinners:

Sahih International

About the criminals,

Dr. Ghali

Concerning the criminals,

Muhsin Khan

About Al-Mujrimun (polytheists, criminals, disbelievers, etc.), (And they will say to them):

Shakir

About the guilty:

Urdu

(یعنی آگ میں جلنے والے) گنہگاروں سے

Pickthall

Concerning the guilty:

مَا سَلَكَكُمْ فِي سَقَرَ

Shakir

What has brought you into hell?

Muhsin Khan

"What has caused you to enter Hell?"

Sahih International

[And asking them], "What put you into Saqar?"

Urdu

کہ تم دوزخ میں کیوں پڑے؟

Yusuf Ali

"What led you into Hell Fire?"

Dr. Ghali

"What inserted you into Saqar?"

Pickthall

What hath brought you to this burning?

قَالُوا لَمْ نَكُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّينَ

Shakir

They shall say: We were not of those who prayed;

Dr. Ghali

They will say, "We were not of the ones who prayed,

Pickthall

They will answer: We were not of those who prayed

Yusuf Ali

They will say: "We were not of those who prayed;

Sahih International

They will say, "We were not of those who prayed,

Muhsin Khan

They will say: "We were not of those who used to offer their Salat (prayers)

Urdu

وہ جواب دیں گے کہ ہم نماز نہیں پڑھتے تھے

وَلَمْ نَكُ نُطْعِمُ الْمِسْكِينَ

Pickthall

Nor did we feed the wretched.

Muhsin Khan

"Nor we used to feed Al-Miskin (the poor);

Dr. Ghali

And we did not feed the indigent,

Yusuf Ali

"Nor were we of those who fed the indigent;

Shakir

And we used not to feed the poor;

Sahih International

Nor did we used to feed the poor.

Urdu

اور نہ فقیروں کو کھانا کھلاتے تھے

وَكُنَّا نَخُوضُ مَعَ الْخَائِضِينَ

Sahih International

And we used to enter into vain discourse with those who engaged [in it],

Dr. Ghali

And we used to wade with the waders, (i.e., wade in vaintalk).

Urdu

اور اہل باطل کے ساتھ مل کر (حق سے) انکار کرتے تھے

Muhsin Khan

"And we used to talk falsehood (all that which Allah hated) with vain talkers.

Yusuf Ali

"But we used to talk vanities with vain talkers;

Pickthall

We used to wade (in vain dispute) with (all) waders,

Shakir

And we used to enter into vain discourse with those who entered into vain discourses.

وَكُنَّا نُكَذِّبُ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ

Sahih International

And we used to deny the Day of Recompense

Dr. Ghali

And we used to cry lies to the Day of Doom.

Muhsin Khan

"And we used to belie the Day of Recompense

Pickthall

And we used to deny the Day of Judgment,

Shakir

And we used to call the day of judgment a lie;

Yusuf Ali

"And we used to deny the Day of Judgment,

Urdu

اور روز جزا کو جھٹلاتے تھے

حَتَّىٰ أَتَانَا الْيَقِينُ

Sahih International

Until there came to us the certainty."

Shakir

Till death overtook us.

Pickthall

Till the Inevitable came unto us.

Yusuf Ali

"Until there came to us (the Hour) that is certain."

Muhsin Khan

"Until there came to us (the death) that is certain."

Dr. Ghali

Until the Certitude came up to us."

Urdu

یہاں تک کہ ہمیں موت آگئی

فَمَا تَنفَعُهُمْ شَفَاعَةُ الشَّافِعِينَ

Dr. Ghali

So in no way will the intercession of the intercessors profit them.

Urdu

(تو اس حال میں) سفارش کرنے والوں کی سفارش ان کے حق میں کچھ فائدہ نہ دے گی

Shakir

So the intercession of intercessors shall not avail them.

Sahih International

So there will not benefit them the intercession of [any] intercessors.

Yusuf Ali

Then will no intercession of (any) intercessors profit them.

Pickthall

The mediation of no mediators will avail them then.

Muhsin Khan

So no intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them.

فَمَا لَهُمْ عَنِ التَّذْكِرَةِ مُعْرِضِينَ

Dr. Ghali

Then what is it with them that they are veering away from the Reminder.

Urdu

ان کو کیا ہوا ہے کہ نصیحت سے روگرداں ہو رہے ہیں

Pickthall

Why now turn they away from the Admonishment,

Muhsin Khan

Then what is wrong with them (i.e. the disbelievers) that they turn away from (receiving) admonition?

Sahih International

Then what is [the matter] with them that they are, from the reminder, turning away

Yusuf Ali

Then what is the matter with them that they turn away from admonition?-

Shakir

What is then the matter with them, that they turn away from the admonition

كَأَنَّهُمْ حُمُرٌ مُّسْتَنفِرَةٌ

Yusuf Ali

As if they were affrighted asses,

Urdu

گویا گدھے ہیں کہ بدک جاتے ہیں

Muhsin Khan

As if they were frightened (wild) donkeys.

Shakir

As if they were asses taking fright

Sahih International

As if they were alarmed donkeys

Dr. Ghali

As if they were stampeding reddish asses,

Pickthall

As they were frightened asses

Loading...