VERSES
200
PAGES
50-76

Name

This Surah takes its name from v.33. Al-i-Imran, like the names of many other surahs, is merely a name to distinguish it from other surahs and does not imply that the family of Imran has been discussed in it.

The Period of Revelation

This Surah consists of four discourses:

The first discourse (vv. 1-32) was probably revealed soon after the Battle of Badr.

The second discourse (vv. 33-63) was revealed in 9 A. H. on the occasion of the visit of the deputation from the Christians of Najran.

The third discourse (vv. 64-120) appears to have been revealed immediately after the first one.

The fourth discourse (vv. 121-200) was revealed after the Battle of Uhd.

Subject

Though these discourses were revealed at different periods and on different occasions, they are so inter-linked and so inter-connected with regard to their aim, object and central theme that they make together one continuous whole. This Surah has been especially addressed to two groups--the people of the Book (the Jews and the Christians) and the followers of Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him).

The message has been extended to the Jews and the Christians in continuation of the invitation in Al-Baqarah, in which they have been admonished for their erroneous beliefs and evil morals and advised to accept, as a remedy, the Truth of the Quran. They have been told here that Muhammad (Allah's peace be, upon him) taught the same right way of life that had been preached by their own Prophets; that it alone was the Right Way, the way of Allah; hence any deviation from it will be wrong even according to their own Scriptures.

The second group, the Muslims, who had been declared to be the best Community in Al-Baqarah and appointed torch-bearers of the Truth and entrusted with the responsibility of reforming the world, have been given additional instructions in continuation of those given in the preceding Surah. The Muslims have been warned to learn a lesson from the religious and moral degeneration of the former communities and to refrain from treading in their footsteps. Instructions have also been given about the reformative work they had to perform. Besides this, they have been taught how to deal with the people of the Book and the hypocrites who were putting different kinds of hindrances in the way of Allah. Above all, they have been warned to guard against those weaknesses which had come to the surface in the Battle Uhd.

Background

The following is the background of the Surah:

  1. The Believers had met with all sorts of trials and hardships about which they had been forewarned in Al-Baqarah. Though they had come out victorious in the Battle of Badr, they were not out of danger yet. Their victory had aroused the enmity of all those powers in Arabia which were opposed to the Islamic Movement. Signs of threatening storms had begun to appear on all sides and the Muslims were in a perpetual state of fear and anxiety. It looked as if the whole Arabian world around the tiny state of Al-Madinah - which was no more than a village state at that time -- was bent upon blotting out its very existence. This state of war was also adversely affecting its economy, which had already been badly disturbed by the influx of the Muslim refugees from Makkah.

  2. Then there was the disturbing problem of the Jewish clans who lived in the suburbs of Al-Madinah. They were discarding the treaties of alliance they had made with the Holy Prophet after his migration from Makkah. So much so that on the occasion of the Battle of Badr, these people of the Book sympathized with the evil aims of the idolaters, in spite of the fact that their fundamental articles of the Faith - Oneness of Allah, Prophethood, Life-after- death -- were the same as those of the Muslims. After the Battle of Badr, they openly began to incite the Quraish and other Arab clans to wreak their vengeance on the Muslims. Thus those Jewish clans set aside their centuries-old friendly and neighborly relations with the people of Al-Madinah. At last when their mischievous actions and breaches of treaties became unbearable, the Holy Prophet attacked the Bani-Qainu-qa'a, the most mischievous of all the other Jewish clans who had conspired with the hypocrites of Al-Madinah and the idolatrous Arab clans to encircle the Believers on all sides. The magnitude of the peril might be judged from the fact that even the life of the Holy Prophet himself was always in danger. Therefore his Companions slept in their armors during that period and kept watch at night to guard against any sudden attack, and whenever the Holy Prophet happened to be out of sight even for a short while, they would at once set out in search of him.

  3. This incitement by the Jews added fuel to the fire which was burning in the hearts of the Quraish and they began to make preparations to avenge the defeat they had suffered at Badr. A year after this an army of 3,000 strong marched out of Makkah to invade Al-Madinah and a battle took place at the foot of Mount Uhd. The Holy Prophet came out of Al-Madinah with one thousand men to meet the enemy. While they were marching to the battle-field, three hundred hypocrites deserted the army and returned to Al-Madinah, but there still remained a small band of hypocrites among the seven hundred who accompanied the Holy Prophet. They played their part and did their worst to create mischief and chaos in the ranks of the Believers during the Battle. This was the first clear indication of the fact that within the fold of the Muslim Community there was quite a large number of saboteurs who were always ready to conspire with the external enemies to harm their own brethren.

  4. Though the devices of the hypocrites had played a great part in the set-back at Uhd, the weaknesses of the Muslims themselves contributed no less to it. And it was but natural that the Muslims should show signs of moral weakness for they were a new community which had only recently been formed on a new ideology and had not as yet got a thorough moral training. Naturally in this second hard test of their physical and moral strength, some weaknesses came to the surface. That is why a detailed review of the Battle of Uhd was needed to warn the Muslims of their shortcomings and to issue instructions for their reform. It should also be noted that this review of the Battle is quite different from the reviews that are usually made by generals on similar occasions.

Subject: Guidance

This Surah is the sequel to Al-Baqarah and the invitation therein is continued to the people of the Book. In Al-Baqarah the Jews were pointedly invited to accept the Guidance and in this Surah the Christians have particularly been admonished to give up their erroneous beliefs and accept the Guidance of the Quran. At the same time, the Muslims have been instructed to nourish the virtues that may enable them to carry out their obligations and spread the Divine Guidance.

Topics and their Interconnection

In these introductory verses, the fundamental truths about Allah, Revelation and Life-after-death have been reiterated to serve as fitting preliminaries, leading to the main topics discussed in the Surah. 1 - 32

This discourse is particularly addressed to the Christians and invites them to accept Islam. It clears Jesus and his mother not only from the stigma maliciously set upon them by the Jews, but also refutes the erroneous Christian creed of the Divinity of Jesus which had been formulated because of his miraculous birth. For this purpose the instances of John the Baptist to a barren woman and an extremely aged man, and that of Adam without father or mother have been cited to show that there is nothing in the birth of Jesus without a father to entitle him to Divinity. 33 - 65

In these verses the people of the Book, the Jews, have been invited to give up their sinister ways and accept the divine Guidance. At the same time the Muslims have been warned to be on their guard against their malicious intentions, erroneous ways and absurd objections. 66 - 101

The Muslims have been instructed to learn lessons from the history of the people of the Book and also to guard themselves against their machinations, and to prepare and train themselves to establish virtue and eradicate evil. 102 - 120

In this portion, a review of the Battle of Uhd has been made to teach and reassure the Muslims that the machinations of their enemies could do them no harm, if they would practice restraint and fortitude and have fear of Allah. It has been pointed out that the set-back they had suffered was due to the lack of some moral qualities and the existence of some evils. As the main cause of the defeat was the greed of the archers guarding the pass, the taking of interest has been prohibited to eradicate part of this evil (greed). 121 - 175

The main theme of the verses 109 - 120 has been resumed to reassure and encourage the Muslims against the dangerous plots of their enemies. 175 - 189

This is the conclusion of the Surah and is not directly connected with the verses immediately preceding it but with the theme of the Surah as a whole. 190 - 200

Source: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Quran

ﭑﭒﭓ

ﭿ

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

Muhsin Khan

Say (O Muhammad SAW): "O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: "Bear witness that we are Muslims."

Transliteration

Qul ya ahla alkitabi taAAalawila kalimatin sawa-in baynana wabaynakum allanaAAbuda illa Allaha wala nushrika bihishay-an wala yattakhitha baAAdunabaAAdan arbaban min dooni Allahi fa-intawallaw faqooloo ishhadoo bi-anna muslimoon

Urdu

کہہ دو کہ اے اہل کتاب جو بات ہمارے اور تمہارے دونوں کے درمیان یکساں (تسلیم کی گئی) ہے اس کی طرف آؤ وہ یہ کہ خدا کے سوا ہم کسی کی عبادت نہ کریں اور اس کے ساتھ کسی چیز کو شریک نہ بنائیں اور ہم میں سے کوئی کسی کو خدا کے سوا اپنا کار ساز نہ سمجھے اگر یہ لوگ (اس بات کو) نہ مانیں تو (ان سے) کہہ دو کہ تم گواہ رہو کہ ہم (خدا کے) فرماں بردار ہیں

يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لِمَ تُحَاجُّونَ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمَا أُنزِلَتِ التَّوْرَاةُ وَالْإِنجِيلُ إِلَّا مِن بَعْدِهِ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ

Urdu

اے اہلِ کتاب تم ابراہیم کے بارے میں کیوں جھگڑتے ہو حالانکہ تورات اور انجیل ان کے بعد اتری ہیں (اور وہ پہلے ہو چکے ہیں) تو کیا تم عقل نہیں رکھتے

Transliteration

Ya ahla alkitabi lima tuhajjoonafee ibraheema wama onzilati attawratuwal-injeelu illa min baAAdihi afalataAAqiloon

Muhsin Khan

O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Why do you dispute about Ibrahim (Abraham), while the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) were not revealed till after him? Have you then no sense?

هَا أَنتُمْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ حَاجَجْتُمْ فِيمَا لَكُم بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلِمَ تُحَاجُّونَ فِيمَا لَيْسَ لَكُم بِهِ عِلْمٌ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Transliteration

Ha antum haola-i hajajtumfeema lakum bihi AAilmun falima tuhajjoona feemalaysa lakum bihi AAilmun wallahu yaAAlamu waantumla taAAlamoon

Muhsin Khan

Verily, you are those who have disputed about that of which you have knowledge. Why do you then dispute concerning that which you have no knowledge? It is Allah Who knows, and you know not.

Urdu

دیکھو ایسی بات میں تو تم نے جھگڑا کیا ہی تھا جس کا تمہیں کچھ علم تھا بھی مگر ایسی بات میں کیوں جھگڑتے ہو جس کا تمہیں کچھ بھی علم نہیں اور خدا جانتا ہے اور تم نہیں جانتے

مَا كَانَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ يَهُودِيًّا وَلَا نَصْرَانِيًّا وَلَٰكِن كَانَ حَنِيفًا مُّسْلِمًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Transliteration

Ma kana ibraheemuyahoodiyyan wala nasraniyyan walakinkana haneefan musliman wama kana minaalmushrikeen

Muhsin Khan

Ibrahim (Abraham) was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa (Islamic Monotheism - to worship none but Allah Alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikun (See V.2:105).

Urdu

ابراہیم نہ تو یہودی تھے اور نہ عیسائی بلکہ سب سے بے تعلق ہو کر ایک (خدا) کے ہو رہے تھے اور اسی کے فرماں بردار تھے اور مشرکوں میں نہ تھے

إِنَّ أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهَٰذَا النَّبِيُّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Muhsin Khan

Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim (Abraham) are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad SAW) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers.

Urdu

ابراہیم سے قرب رکھنے والے تو وہ لوگ ہیں جو ان کی پیروی کرتے ہیں اور پیغمبر (آخرالزمان) اور وہ لوگ جو ایمان لائے ہیں اور خدا مومنوں کا کارساز ہے

Transliteration

Inna awla annasibi-ibraheema lallatheena ittabaAAoohu wahathaannabiyyu wallatheena amanoo wallahuwaliyyu almu/mineen

وَدَّت طَّائِفَةٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يُضِلُّونَكُمْ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

Urdu

(اے اہل اسلام) بعضے اہلِ کتاب اس بات کی خواہش رکھتے ہیں کہ تم کو گمراہ کر دیں مگر یہ (تم کو کیا گمراہ کریں گے) اپنے آپ کو ہی گمراہ کر رہے ہیں اور نہیں جانتے

Muhsin Khan

A party of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish to lead you astray. But they shall not lead astray anyone except themselves, and they perceive not.

Transliteration

Waddat ta-ifatun min ahli alkitabilaw yudilloonakum wama yudilloona illaanfusahum wama yashAAuroon

ﯿ

يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لِمَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ

Muhsin Khan

O people of the Scripture! (Jews and Christians): "Why do you disbelieve in the Ayat of Allah, [the Verses about Prophet Muhammad SAW present in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] while you (yourselves) bear witness (to their truth)."

Transliteration

Ya ahla alkitabi limatakfuroona bi-ayati Allahi waantumtashhadoon

Urdu

اے اہلِ کتاب تم خدا کی آیتوں سے کیوں انکار کرتے ہو اور تم (تورات کو) مانتے تو ہو

يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لِمَ تَلْبِسُونَ الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُونَ الْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Urdu

اے اہلِ کتاب تم سچ کو جھوٹ کے ساتھ خلط ملط کیوں کرتے ہو اور حق کو کیوں چھپاتے ہو اور تم جانتے بھی ہو

Muhsin Khan

O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): "Why do you mix truth with falsehood and conceal the truth while you know?"

Transliteration

Ya ahla alkitabi limatalbisoona alhaqqa bilbatili wataktumoonaalhaqqa waantum taAAlamoon

وَقَالَت طَّائِفَةٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ آمِنُوا بِالَّذِي أُنزِلَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَجْهَ النَّهَارِ وَاكْفُرُوا آخِرَهُ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

Urdu

اور اہلِ کتاب ایک دوسرے سے کہتے ہیں کہ جو (کتاب) مومنوں پر نازل ہوئی ہے اس پر دن کے شروع میں تو ایمان لے آیا کرو اور اس کے آخر میں انکار کر دیا کرو تاکہ وہ (اسلام سے) برگشتہ ہو جائیں

Muhsin Khan

And a party of the people of the Scripture say: "Believe in the morning in that which is revealed to the believers (Muslims), and reject it at the end of the day, so that they may turn back.

Transliteration

Waqalat ta-ifatun min ahlialkitabi aminoo billathee onzilaAAala allatheena amanoo wajha annahariwakfuroo akhirahu laAAallahum yarjiAAoon

ﭿ

وَلَا تُؤْمِنُوا إِلَّا لِمَن تَبِعَ دِينَكُمْ قُلْ إِنَّ الْهُدَىٰ هُدَى اللَّهِ أَن يُؤْتَىٰ أَحَدٌ مِّثْلَ مَا أُوتِيتُمْ أَوْ يُحَاجُّوكُمْ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ الْفَضْلَ بِيَدِ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Muhsin Khan

And believe no one except the one who follows your religion. Say (O Muhammad SAW): "Verily! Right guidance is the Guidance of Allah" and do not believe that anyone can receive like that which you have received (of Revelation) except when he follows your religion, otherwise they would engage you in argument before your Lord. Say (O Muhammad SAW): "All the bounty is in the Hand of Allah; He grants to whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, the All-Knower."

Transliteration

Wala tu/minoo illa limantabiAAa deenakum qul inna alhuda huda Allahian yu/ta ahadun mithla ma ooteetum aw yuhajjookumAAinda rabbikum qul inna alfadla biyadi Allahiyu/teehi man yashao wallahu wasiAAunAAaleem

Urdu

اور اپنے دین کے پیرو کے سوا کسی اور کے قائل نہ ہونا (اے پیغمبر) کہہ دو کہ ہدایت تو خدا ہی کی ہدایت ہے (وہ یہ بھی کہتے ہیں) یہ بھی (نہ ماننا) کہ جو چیز تم کو ملی ہے ویسی کسی اور کو ملے گی یا وہ تمہیں خدا کے روبرو قائل معقول کر سکیں گے یہ بھی کہہ دو کہ بزرگی خدا ہی کے ہاتھ میں ہے وہ جسے چاہتا ہے دیتا ہے اور خدا کشائش والا (اور) علم والا ہے

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